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Full text of "Celebrated method for the clarinet"

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List of the Principal Words used in Modern Music 

With their Abbreviations and Explanations 



A to, in or at; a tempo, in time 

Accelerando (accel.). Gradually increasing the* speed 

Accent Emphasis on certain parts of the measure 

Adagio Slowly leisurely 

Ad libitum Cad HbJ . At .pleasure: not in strict time 

A due (a 2). . . . . To Be played by both instruments 

Agitato Restless, with agitation 

Al or Alia. ..... In the style of 

Alia Marcia . . . . In the style of a March 

Allegretto Diminutive of allegro; moderately fast, lively; 

faster than andante,- slower than allegro 

Allegro Lively; brisk, rapid. 

Allegro assai .... Very rapidly 

Amoroso Affectionately 

Andante In moderately slow time 

Andantino Diminutive of andantej strictly slower than an- 
dante, but often used in the reverse sense 

Anima, con I . . . . With animation 

Animato ) 

A piacere At pleasure: equivalent to ad libitum 

Appassionato. . . .Impassioned 

Arpeggio A broken ch< 



chord 



Assai". Very; Allegro assai, very rapidly 

A tempo In the original tempo 

Attacca Attack or begin what follows without pausing 

Barcarolle A Venetian boatmahs song 

Bis Twice, repeat the passage 

Bravura Brilliant; bold; spirited 

Brillante Showy, sparkling, brilliant 

Brio, con With much spirit 

Cadenz • , An elaborate, florid passage introduced 

as an embellishment 

Cantabile In a singing style 

Ganzonetta A short song or air 

Capriccio a ... .At pleasure, ad libitum 

Cavatina An air, shorter and simpler than the aria, 

and in one division, without Da Capo 
Chord The harmony of three or more tones of 

different pitch produced simultaneously 
Coda . . . . ... . .A supplement at the end of a composition 

Col or eon With 

Crescendo (cresc.) . . Swelling; increasing in loudness 
Da or dal .... .From 
Da Capo (D. C.) . .From the beginning 
Dal Segno (D.S.). . From the sign 
Decrescendo(decresc.)DetTea,sin.g in strength 
Diminuendo (dim.). Gradually softer 

Divisi Divided, each part to be played by a sep- 
arate instrument 
Dolce (dol.) . . . .Softly; sweetly 

Dolcissimo Very sweetly and softly 

Dominant. . .• . . . The fifth tone in the major or minor scale 
Duet or J)uo .... A composition for two performers 

E ■ .And * 

Elegante .Elegant, graceful 

Energico With energy, vigorously 

Enharmonic .... Alike in pitch r but different in notation 

Espressivo With expression 

Yxnale The concluding movement 

Fine The end 

Forte Cf) Loud 

Forte -piano (fp) . . Accent strongly, diminishing instantly to 

piano 
Fortissimo (Jf). . .Very loud 
Forzando(fz>) . .Indicates that a note or chord is to be 

strongly accented 

Forza Force or tone 

Fuoco,con With fire; with spirit 

\jiioc68o Joyously, playfully 

Giusto Exact; in strict time 

Grandioso Grand; pompous; majestic 

Grave Very slow and solemn 

Grazioso Gracefully 

Harmony In general, a, combination of tones, or 

chords, producing music 

Key note The first degree of the scale, the tonio 

hargamente . . . .Very broad in style 

Larghetto Slow, but not so slow as Largo; nearly 

like Andantino 

Largo Broad and slow; the slowest tempo-mark 

Legato Smoothly, the reverse of staccato 

Ledger-line A small added line above or below the 

staff 

Lento Slow, between Andante and Largo 

LHstesso tempo. . . In the same time, (or tempo) 

Loco La place. Play as written, no longer, an 

octave higher or lower 

Ma . But 

Ma non troppo. . .Lively, but not too. mucb so 

Maestoso Majestically; dignified 

Maggiore Major Key 

Marcato Marked 

Meno Less 

Meno mosso . 
Mezzo 



.Less quickly , 
.Half; moderately 



Mezzo-piano (mp) . Moderately soft 

Minore Minor Key 

Moderato Moderately. Allegro moderato, mod- 
erately fast 

Molta Much; very 

Morendo Dying away 

Mosso Equivalent to rapid. Piu mosso, quicker. 

Moto Motion. Con moto, with animation 

No/i Not 

Notation The art of representing musical sounds 

by means of written characters 

Obbligato An indispensable part 

Opus {Op.) A work. 

Ossia . ...... .Or; or else. Generally indicating an 

easier method 

Ottava (8 va ) .... To be played an octave higher 

Pause (/?\) .... The sign indicating a pause or rest 

Perdendosi PymJ? away gradually 

Piacere, a At pleasure 

Pianissimo (va>) . .Very softly 

Piano (p) .... .Softly 

Piu More 

Piu Allegro . . . .More quickly 

Piu tosto Quicker 

Poco or un poco. .A .little 

Poco a poco. . . .Gradually, by degrees; little by little 

Poco piu mosso . . A little faster 

Poco meno .' . . . .A little slower 

Poco piu A little faster 

Poi „ . .Then; afterwards 

Pomposo . .... .Pompous; grand 

Prestissimo . . . .As quickly as possible 

Presto ........ Very quick; faster than Allegro 

Primo (imo), . . . The first . 

Quariet A piece of music for four performers. 

Quasi As if ; in the style of 

Quintet. . . . . .A piece of music for five per- 
formers 

Tlallentando (rail.) Gradually slower 

Replica Repetition. Senza replica, without 

repeats 

Rinforzando . . . .With special emphasis 

Ritardando (rit.) Gradually slower and sljwer 

Risoluto Resolutely; bold; energetic 

Ritenuto In slower time 

Scherzando. . . . .Playfully; sportively 

Secondo (2 d °) . . .The second singer, instrumentalist or 
part 

Segue Follow on in similar style 

Semplice ...... Simply; unaffectedly 

Senza Without. Senza sordino without mute 

Sforzando (sf). . .Forcibly; with sudden emphasis 

Simile or Simili . . In like manner 

Smarzando (smorz) Diminishing in sound. Equivalent to 
Morendo 

Soto For one performer only..<S'o^t; for alJ 

Sordino A mute. Con sordi no, with the mute 

Sostenuto. Sustained; prolonged. 

Sotto Below; under. Sotto voce, in a subdued 

tone 

Spirito Spirit, con Spirito with spirit 

Staccato Detached; separate 

Steniando Dragging or retarding the tempo 

Stretto or stretta. .An increase of speed. Piu stretto faster 

Subdominant . . . .The fourth tone in the diatonic scale 

Syncopation . . . .Change of accent from a strong beat 

„, to a weak one. 

Tacet "Is silent" Signified that an instrument 

or vocal part, so marked, is omitted 
during the movement or number in question. 

Tempo Movement; rate of speed. 

Tempo primo . . .Return to the original tempo. 

Tenutojten.) . . . .Held for the full value. 

Thema or Theme . .The subject or melody. 

Tonic The key-note of any scale. 

Tranquillo Quietly. 

Tremolando, Tremolo A tremulous fluctation of tone. 

Trio A piece of music for three performers. 

Triplet A group of three notes to be performed 

in the time of two of equal value in the 
regular rhythm. 

Troppo Too; too much Allegro t ma non troppo, 

not too quickly. 

Tutti All; all the instruments. 

Urc A, one, an. 

Una corda On one string. 

Variations The transformation of a melody by means 

of harmonic, rhythmio and melodic changes 
and embellishments. 

Veloce Quick, rapid, swift. 

Vibrato A wavering tone-effect, which should be 

sparingly used. 
Vivace With vivacity; bright; spirited. 

Vivo Lively; spirited. 

Volti Subito VS. . Turn over quickly. 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

INTRODUCTION ... ..... . . 2 

Descriptive table for the Albert Clarinet. 
Descriptive table for the Boehm Clarinet. 

Quality and compass of the Clarinet. ..... 3 

Position of the player, his hands and fingers. . . 3 

Of the Mouthpiece and the Reed. ........ 3 

Advantage of playing with the reed underneath. 4 

Position of the Mouthpiece in the mouth. ... 4 

Of the embouchure 4 

Of sound and the manner of producing it. 4 
Explanation of the Boehm chromatie table with 

the Keys fingers etc . 5 

Trills and shakes (Boehm) 9 

Trills and shakes major and minor, their res- 
olutions and different fingerings 12 

Of fingering in general 18 

Accent or emphasis. 18 

Notation of Clarinet music 18 

Study and practice. 18 

Advice to beginners.. . 18 

First sounds to be practised 19 

Respiration and manner of .breathing. ..... 24 

Shading 25 

(Signs which indicate the different shades of . 

(sound and the manner of obtaining them. ... 25 

68 Exercises of mechanism 26 

/ Practical exercises upon passages difficult on 
<the ordinary Clarinet but simple and easy on 

'the Boehm instrument. 54 

Table of tonics, leading notes and dominants. . 59 

Of leading notes 59 

Table of altered or leading notes and the degrees 

on which they are found 60 



PAGE. 

Scales and Exercises 61 

Change of fingering on the same note 84 

Of taste and expression in music. ...... 85 

Of the Cadenza. 85 

Of the trail or prominent passage. ..... 85 

Of Articulation 85 

(45 Exercises upon different combinations of . 

(articulation with studies of Sixths, Octaves etc. 86 

Slurred notes 98 

Pointed notes 99 

Of the Staccato. . 101 

Of the proper rendering of the sound.. ... 102 

Syncopation 104 

Intercepted notes 106 

Swelled and diminished sounds 108 

Appoggiatura 110 

Gruppetto. 112 

Trill or Cadence 115 

Mordant. .--■-, 117 

Ornaments or flourishes in melody 119 

Arpeggios 120 

Of major and minor scales ) 123 

Daily practice of scales and exercises etc. . | 

Chromatic exercise 124 

Exercise of scales in thirds/ major and minor. 126 

(Exercise on the perfect chord, major and 

(minor, in all the Keys 128 

Exercise on Dominant sevenths. . 130 

Exercise on Diminished sevenths 131 

Exercise on Sixths - 132 

Exercise on Octaves. . 134 

15 Grands morceaux . 136 

Preludes in the form of perfect cadences.. . . 202 

22 Exercises on low notes (Chalumeau) ... 203 

Studies in the different registers. . . ... . 208 



APPENDIX. 

50 Celebrated Duets. (Jos. Kueffn.:r op.80) 

I Puritani. Fantasia. (Luigi Bassi.) 
Adagio from iri r _ (i Concerto. (L. Spohr. ) 

Celebrated Concert Studies. (H Klose ) 



28 
215 
218 
220 



5015-259 



INTRODUCTION. 

The Clarinet was invented at Nuremberg about the year J690 by a maker of stringed instruments 
named John Christopher DENNER. It was in its design the most imperfect of wind instruments and in 
nowise gave promise of the splendid position it was to attain in after years. Possessing only ;i single 
Ke} r and wanting in regularity in the succession of its different registers, the Clarinet obtained at first 
but little attention. Some artists however, attracted by the beauty of its sounds endeavored to im- 
prove it, thus, by degrees, and from one improvement to another, the number of its Keys was in- 
creased to five and it remained a long time in that state. At length Ivan Muller brought the in- 
strument to a high state of perfection and produced his Clarinet armed with 13 Keys. A few artists 
have since added supplementary Keys for facilitating certain fingerings. 

On the appearance of the 13 Keyed Clarinet a complete revolution took place in the study of this in- 
strument,, and, although still imperfect, it was sought after and practised by a great number of per- 
sons, the playing of Clarinettists became considerably improved, and many of them made themselves 
remarkable. Amongst those we must place Frederic Berr in the first rank,- in his hands the Clarinet 
became a new instrument. A pure and brilliant talent, a theoretical knowledge both profound and ex - 
tensive, besides the beautiful compositions he has left, acquired and assured for him the title of 
Founder of the French School of the Clarinet. It is to his school that I glory to belong, and all my 
life shall be devoted to promulgating and following the valuable precepts he has inculcated. 

The instrument was, however, far from having attained all the perfection of which it was susceptible, 
for since its invention the Clarinet had been pierced according to the natural separation of the fingers. 
This resulted in a faulty tone,- the notes being frequently dull, feeble or too shrill, the mechanism of 
the Keys caused insurmountable difficulties of fingering, making it impossible to play the Clarinet in 
all the different Keys (Scales-,) and hence arose the necessity, as onerous as it was troublesome, for 
3 Clarinets, C, Bv and A. 

When I succeeded Berr at the Royal Conservatory of music (being anxious to fulfil conscientiously the la- 
borious functions confided to me, and desiring to secure for the Clarinet the rank it deserved by the beauty of 
its tone and its two fold value as a solo and an accompanying instrument) I endeavored to get rid entirely 
of the faults I have just mentioned. I labored long at this and after numerous trials the movable rings appeared 
to me to solve, in an efficacious manner, the problem whose solution I had searched for during many years. 
It is to Mr. Auguste Buffet Jr, who seized and interpreted my ideas with a rare happiness, that I owe the in- 
strument I now present to Artists and Amateurs. 

This instrument reunites with an equality as perfect as possible in all its compass, a very superior purity 
of tone and the facility of a more correct fingering, enabling the performer to play in all the Keys indiscrim- 
inate^. 

With very few exceptions the fingering is the same as hitherto in use,- the only important changes are 
those for the forked notes, which were alwa} s defective, and which' I have entirely got rid of. There is there 
fore no new study to undergo— a few days' practice will suffice to make one familiar with the instrument. 

I have had no intention of making a new instrument,- I have desired, in preserving for the Clarinet all its 

old advantages, to bring forth those of which it was capable, that is to say, the regularity of the sounds, 

and the faculty of playing in all the Keys on one instrument. 

H. KLOSE. 

PREFACE. 

In presentingto the American public a new edition of Klose's celebrated method for the Clarinet, the aim of 
the editor has been to eliminate the numerous errors and misprints that exist in all other editions, even 

in the original French. It is without doubt the best method for the Clarinet ever written and this edition 
is made more interesting by the addition of the "Kuffner Duets" and "Concert Studies^byKlose, which are among the 
most important and interesting of any he has written. 

C. L. STAATS. 
B oaf oh, Mass. May, 1898. 



N. B. Those Clarinetists who have no desire to change the instrument they use, will find this method equally useful for the 
purposes of the 13 Key«d Clarinet. It contains several morceaux written in unusual Keys. I believe (and I speak from 
experience) that the practice of these pieces will be very useful. They will increase the knowledge of the performer and 
enable him to overcome all difficulties he may encounter. In one word he will thus have a superlative power over the 
instrument. 



5015-259 



METHOD for the CLARINET. 



OF THE QUALITIES AND COMPASS 
OF THE CLARINET. 

The Clarinet is, without contradiction, of all wind 
instruments the one which presents the greatest rich- 
ness of tone and extent of compass,- comprising" 
sounds from great depth to extreme height, it is the 
soul of military music, and one of the principal sup- 
ports of the Orchestra. Its use is most frequent and ex- 
tensive, playing by turns the air, the accompaniment 
and the prominent phrase or passage. 

The compass of the Clarinet is nearly four ^ctaves 
extending from the low E -$ , a up to C in altis - 

e- 3&E 1 It 



simo 



-tr-r 



s 



In the upper 

notes "of the high register 
it loses considerably,- the 
tones are screeching, disa- 
greeable to the ear and most- 
ly defective, those who apply 
themselves too much to the 
practice of those notes never 
possess a good tone in the 
low register (chalumeau. ) 

I advise, then, no pass- 
ing above the high G 



iter 



the reasonable lim- 
it of the instrument. 

The Clarinet is divided 
into 3 registers: the 1 st or 
deepest register, called 
chalumeau, extends fromthe 



lowj| gi I II to B\> 



P 5: I I the 2 n - d register 
Medium, from B 



V^p 



to C\ g| I II and the 3 r - d 



register, in alt, commences 



and ascends 



to the high C\ Eg 



i 




C. L. 8TAATS 



POSITION OF THE PLAYER HIS 
HANDS AND FINGERS. 

It is essential in playing the Clarinet tu place your- 
self in a convenient and easy position. The body should 
be upright, with its weight upon the left leg, the right 
leg being a little in advance The chest well expanded 
facilitates the play of the lungs, and allows the per- 
former to bring out sounds both long and well sus- 
tained. The arms should fall naturally along the body. 

The hands must be held without contraction or rigid- 
ity upon the Clarinet,- the fingers a little bent must fol- 
low the perpendicular of the instrument and fall rather 
than strike upon the holes. 

It is upon the thumb of the right hand that the weight 
of the instrument should principally rest. This thumb 
placed under a hook supports the Clarinet and prevents 
it from shifting. 
5015-259 



The left hand occupies the upper part of the instru- 
ment. The l 8 - 1 , 2 n - d , and 3 r - d fingers are placed upon the 
two rings and the hole in the front, while the thumb 
is used for closing the hole at the back and opening the 
12 1 - 11 key. The little finger is extended to touch easily 
the keys N ( l s 1, 2, Z and 6. 

The right hand occupies the lower part of the in- 
strument. The \ s l* 2 n - d , and 3 r - d fingers stop the holes 
placed under the three rings, the little finger must be 
always extended so as to touch easily the keys N°- s 
3, 4, X and Y. 

OF THE MOUTHPIECE AND THE REED 

The mouthpiece, as is evident from its name, is that 

part of the Clarinet which is 
placed in the mouth for the 
purpose of playing the instru- 
ment. 

The Reed is formed of a 
flat piece of cane attached to 
the mouthpiece and caused 
to vibrate by the breath and 
tongue thus producing the sound. 
The part of the mouthpiece 
upon which the Reed is placed 
is called the lay ; it is formed 
of a smooth surface which, at 
the distance of alineanda half 
from the ligature, rounds off 
slightly to the top, so that 
the end of the reed leaves an 
opening of about the twenty- 
fifth part of an inch. 

Mouthpieces were former- 
ly made small, narrowing to- 
wards the top which proved 
very bad, as the performer 
lost much breath through the 
corners of the mouth. 

They are now perfected 
and made much larger which 
gives the advantage of a 
more natural position, the 
saving of breath and the pro- 
duction of a fuller and bet- 
ter tone. 

Hitherto Clarinet mouth- 
pieces were made of wood, 
which is without doubt the 
best material for producing 
tone, but it has its draw- 
backs being subject to at- 
mopheric influences which 
is apt to cause serious al- 
terations in the surface of 
the lay. Therefore, some mu- 
sicians recommend the use of crystal and hard rubber 
mouthpieces as a substitute for wood, as they are not 
effected by atmospheric changes, 

It is absolutely necessary to procure a good mouth- 
piece and, above all, good reeds. It is with an excel- 
lent reed and by its perfectly correct placing upon 
the lay of the mouthpiece, that one obtains that fine 
quality of tone, which every artist, desirous of pleas- 
ing his audience, ought to seek. Without beauty of 
tone a pleasing performance is not attained, and the 
most eminent talent in other respects excites only a 
moderate amount of interest. 



NOTE.' The crystal mouthpieces recommended by M. Klose 
have never been used to any great extent, those made of 
hard rubber have found more favor among artists inFrance, 
England and America. 













OF THE ADVANTAGE OF PLAYING 
WITH THE REED UNDERNEATH 

The three following advantages result from playing 
with the reed below. 

1. A much softer and more agreeable tone is obtained 

2. The tongue being naturally placed under the reed, 
possesses a much greater facility of articulation. 

3. This manner of playing appears more graceful, 
gives greater powers of execution, and is much less 
fatiguing. 

As before stated the quality of reed used is the great 
essential for tone production, which point must be im- 
pressed upon students of the Clarinet. Therefore we re- 
commend that they use the Karl Mayer make of reeds, 
which kind are exclusively played upon by all great Clar- 
inetists. 

POSITION OF THE MOUTHPIECE 
IN THE MOUTH. 



Insert nearly half the mouthpiece into, the mouth 
the reed being underneath. The lower lip is a little 
drawn in so as to cover the teeth. The upper lip must 
be slightly pressed downwards to prevent the teeth 
biting the mouthpiece and damaging the quality of 
tone. The mouthpiece being thus held by alight press- 
ure of both lips, the air cannot escape by the sides 
of the mouth,- the reed can then act freely and per- 
form its vibrations with all desirable facility: if on 
the contrary the mouthpiece is too tightly compressed 
in the mouth the reed has no longer any play, the 
lips become tired, and we only obtain a poor and 
snuffling tone. 






OF THE EMBOUCHURE. 

The embouchure is the interpreter of our sensations 
and of our musical ideas. A good embouchure is there- 
fore indispensable, and all our labours must tend to 
this result. 

To attain this end we must possess the two con- 
stitutive elements of the finest embouchure, which 
are: delicacy of tone and lightness of tongue. 

OF SOUND 

AND THE MANNER OF PRODUCING IT. 

The sound of the Clarinet is produced by the tongue 
which sends the air into the instrument and at the 
same time causes the reed to vibrate. To produce 
the sound we must take in a sufficient quantit) r of air 
and force it into the instrument by a short stroke 
of the tongue. 

Once the sound is produced we must sustain it and 
guide it more by increasing than diminishing it. 
We discern in the sound, quality, sonorousness or 
tone, and degree of force. 

The finest tone is that which combines sweetness 
with brightness, and as the Clarinet possesses this 
precious advantage we must preserve it by applying 
ourselves closely, from the commencement, to the 
production of sounds both full and soft, givingthem 
at the same time both force and roundness. 

To obtain a quality of tone perfectly equal over the 
whole extent of the instrument; to be able to mod- 
ify it according to the requirements of the"morceau" 
or the caprice of the performer,- to lead it from 
piano to fo?'te or it ova. forte to piano always pre- 
serving its pure and full tone,- that is the end we 
must strive to attain. The practice of the slurred 
scales and the sustained notes will lead to these results. 



NOTE! The student of the Albert Clarinet is recommended to study with attention the following 14 pages. With the aid 
of the previous tables he will readily perceive and appreciate the few differences between his Instrument ai d that of the 
B oehm principle. 

5015 - 259 



N9 25 



DESCRIPTIVE TABLE FOR THE BOEHM CLARINET 

WITH VARIOUS EXAMPLES ILLUSTRATING ITS MANY ADVANTAGES 




Copyright 1898 by Oar/ Fischer New York- 



CARL FISCHER iSS^ NEW YORK 

INC. 



SCALE FOR THE CLARINET WITH 15 KEYS. 

GIVING VARIOUS EXAMPLES ON THE USE OF THE F# AND C# ACTION, ALSO SIDE Eb AND B!> KEY, 
WITH SEVERAL OTHER EXAMPLES AND FACILITIES OF FINGERING 



NOTE: The 16 keyed Cla 
is the most desirable 



net, with r 

on system Clar: 



nth upper and lower joints, 
obe obtained. 
is made by stopping the 



softhcrings on the upper joint the 

Jfe. 
thumb hole alone and the^E is made by stopping the thumbhnlr .indo- 

pening the key N° 13 or thumtTkey. This improvement docs away with the 

use of the 9th key in making those notes.thus making the execution of ma- 
nypassages in sharp keys muchless difficult. Various other keys have been 
invented in addition to those already ment ioned,but they are of doubtful value and are not 

recommended 



Pipe key or 13th. key. 



1 M 




EXPLANATION of the Chromatic Table, of the knowledge of the Keys,of the fin- 
gerings, and the manifest advantage of the Boehm Clarinet. 



To make the fingering- of each note more easily un- 
derstood, I shall use the signs ordinarily employed in 
Tables of Scales. 

The six holes or rings on the front of the instrument, 
will be stopped or closed by the fingers of each hand 
corresponding with their position. 

The mark o indicates the holes which must be opened. 

The black spot • the holes which must be closed. 

The short line across which separates the black 

or white points, denotes the separation of the two hands. 

f he figures denote the Keys. 

The letters the double Kej's. 

The hole or ring placed at the back of the instrument 
must be closed by the thumb of the left hand.This hole 
must always be stopped except for the following notes. 

|J ||J bJ i)J ^ 



^^ 



o 
o 

"o 
o 
o 



10 
o 
o 
o 
"o 
o 
o 



12 

o 
o 
o. 

"o" 
o 
o 



?3= 



»th 



11 


11 


10 


10 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 






o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 



the 



The 12 . Key will no longer be indicated beyond 

Bit S ^o H As this Key is always open in the second 

register of the Clarinet, it is sufficient to explain ithere 
once for all. 

In seeking a fingering we shall only have to attend to 
the six principal holes or rings, the numbers and the 
Keys, recollecting that the 12th Key must be shut or open 
according to the position of the note in the scale. 

The Clarinet is divided into three registersjthe first, 
called Chalumeau. commences at the low^ and ends at 



the Bl> in the stave jc j iJ |[ : beyond this Bl> the Key N? 



12 remains constantly open and indicates the second re. 
gisl 

at 



leiiiiti-us uons laiiiiy upen aim ljiuiuaies uie seuunuie. 
>ter,or Medium; this register commences at^andends 

^k jjj p ji r |: beyond this last note the first finger of 



the left hand remains always open for the third register, 
or notes in alt. 

The Keys are counted upwards like the stave.- the let. 
ters are taken in the same order Xforl,Yfor 2,Z for 3. 

It will be observed in the four Keys which are atthe 
place of each little finger, that the Keys XY and Z are on. 
ly the repetition of the Keys, N°. s l,2 and3;so as nottocon. 
fuse the fingerings, I have marked themwith those let. 
ters. The employment of these double Keys is of great u. 
tility in facilitating the scales, intervals and cadences, 
which in this part of the instrument were not to be made 
or only with the greatest difficulty; we shall be convinced 
of this by the passages, arpeggios etc. which are found in 
this Method. 



KEY N?l andX (Key open.) 

All the holes or rings at the front or back of the instru- 
ment being stopped, and the thumb of the right hand be. 
ing placed under the hook by which the instrument is 
supported,you shut with the little finger of thelefthand 
the Key N9l and thus get the low E; (you can dispense with 
the use of the little finger of the right hand upon the Key N93) 
This note can equally be produced by placing the little 
finger of the right hand upon the Key X placed under 
the Key NO. 3, it being understood that in this casethe lit- 
tle finger of the left hand need not be placed on Key N°l. 
5015 



i 



tr-= — - 



x 



By opening Key N!?12you get the 12^' 
of the preceding note, viz B§. 



I 



W 



I 



This Key is used for trilling on the E with Ft| and in the 12^ 
the Bt) withCb,. 

KEY N9 2 and Y (Key shut.) 

The holes (or rings) being stopped, by placing the lit- 
tle finger of the left hand on Key N9. 2, you obtain the 
low F# (no neccessity for touching Key N9 3 with the little 
finger of the right hand) 

The F# is equally produced by placing the little fin- 
ger of the right hand upon the Key Yplaced beneath 
Key N94(the little finger of the left hand no longer re- 
quired upon Key N92) 



t 



IT:- - 



| By opening Key NQlSyou get C#. ft ^' Ig^EJ 



Y 



This Key serves to trill F# with Gl| and in the 12 th C# with Dt|. 
NOTE. To shake on Ekj with F# you must press the lit. 
tie finger of the left hand upon Key N°J, and trill with 
the little finger of the right hand upon the Key Y; or 
press Key X with the little finger of the right hand 
and trill with the little finger of the left hand upon 
the Key N9. 2. 

KEY N? 3 and Z (Key open.) 
The holes or rings being stopped, you will press the 
little finger of the right hand upon Key N9 3 and make 
the low Fij; this note is equally made by pressing the 
little finger of the left hand upon the Key (or Spatula) 
Z; in the latter fingering the little finger of the right 
hand need not remain upon Key N93. 



I 



ff .- .- 



| By opening the lfc^Key you get ct|. (k ' ! " |jE^| 



This Key is used to trill Pi) with G^and in the 12 th Cl) with DJI. 

KEY *N<>4:(CZosed.) 

The holes {or rings) being stopped, press the little fin. 
ger of the right hand upon Key N2 4, and you will have 
\owG-# orA\>. This Key serves to sustain the instru. 
ment when you play in the 3 rd register (in alt.) 

JByopeningthe^^KeyyougetDtforEk g ^ ff- or ''" 



% 



77__f'«- 



or 



4 4 
This Key is used to trill F# with G#, and Gb, with Amandin the 
12th ctfwith D#, and Db with Ek 

NOTE. To shake the C# with D#, or D h with JSk you must 
place the little finger of the left hand on KeyN°2and 
trill with the little finger of the right hand upon Key N9 
4. 

RIGHT HAND ^finger (open hole.) 

The holes on the instrument being stopped,you have the 
low Glj, and raising the 3 r - d finger you get the low Alj. 



By openingthe 



By raising- the 
first finger of the 



112™ Kev yo U u g [i CT left hand vou ob - f- ^— p— or ■ 
get Da ajidEb. WV^-^^H t ain Btfand C# or tfe \ \ \ 

& * ; T>b. w o o o 



You trill with this finger the Gt) and At|,G#and Afc|,In the 12th 
Db, with Eb^Dtfwith E^and in alt B#with C#,orCt] with Dl>. 

RIGHT HAND 2 n _ d or Middle finger (open hole.) 

The holes above being stopped, and the2 n _ ( l (or mid_ 
die) finger raised you obtain the low^# or Bl>. 



By opening the 
12th Key 



WM 



1r>y opening uie n a kg Raising the first Q ~ 

12*]* Key you get 3 * ^"br" - -} finger of the left A ~]| 

— — j hand you obtain eT o " 

j. Dtj in alt. _I_ 



You trill with this finger At] with A#(or Bb),In the 12th Et] 
withE#(or Fl|) and in alt, C# with Dl}. 

KEY N2 5 (fc/<««0 

This Key is taken with the third finger of the right 

hand and gives the lowify . \ ?9 _ 

-6- -,, • 6 jp and raising the first A*---= 

ffi I Opening thelffft Hjjg — i finger of the left X* 

iff ha . B Key you get F#. ff . " hand you — "* - ^ 



it" 



get D# or I 



-Of- 



o o 



This Key serves to trill A# with Bl|, in the 12 th E'# with F#, 
and in alt Dlj(orEfe) 

RIGHT HAND 1st finger or Index (open hole.) 
The holes above being stopped and the first finger or 
index raised, you obtain low Clj. u*. 

ji r ^^B>ia. -•-»_- .Li. jo tit "JLJ a 



It 



and raising the first 



Q h e ,. ana raisingtne iirst * — 
I Opening thei^foj B L l lfinger of the lefthand fo I I 

*Key you get Glj. If » you get Et|. t) 7 o 



You trill with this finger B\> with Cif,in the 12 th Fl| with Gk, 
and in alt Di} with Et|. 

KEY N2 6 (Closed.) 
This Key is taken with the little finger of the left 
hand and gives the low C# or D{>. !>* 




'6 

o o 
o o 
o o 



o o lips you get the top 
° ° Bk 



This Key serves to trill Cl) with C# (or Dl>); in the 12 th Glj 
with G# (or Al>) in alt El} with Ft], and the high A\\ with Bk 

LEFT HAND 3 r - d finger (openJiole.) 

The holes above being stopped, the 3 r _ d finger of the 
left hand raised will give the low Dl^. ^ o j,^ 



I 



By opening the ^ fr" 9 " „ By raising the t^ 

finger of the left 



#£ b ? 



j l2th\Key youob.SE 
1 tain At;. W 



hand you get F#orGk«>J' o "o" 



o_ o. 

o" o" 

o o 

o o 



You trill with this finger Ct| with Dtj, C# with I>^ in the 12 th 
Gl] with Alj, G# with Al| ; and in alt El) with F#. 

KEY N2 7 and 7 bis fc/<wj 

The Key NG 7 is taken with the first finger of the 
right hand and gives Z># or El>. 

N<27bis is taken with the third finger of the left hand 
and also gives Z># or JEh. 
5015 



Q By opening the /) gg gg By raising thp.l s J_g 

A — o^^ 112th Key you oh.<$ L— or || finger of the left 2* 

iFflg»g " tain Aft or BK £f . . ~" hand you get gk ff 



^ 



7* 7*bis. 

•2- °- 

o o" 

o o 

o o 



7 or7 bis. 
o. o 
o o" 
o o 
o o 



o o 
7 or7*bis. 
2. ° 

O n 
O 



These Keys serve to trill Dt] with D#(or EWin the 12 th Al) with 
A#(or BWand in alt F# with Gl|. 

The following are some instances in which the KeyNf? 
7 is indispensable for accuracy and facility of fingering. 

EXAMPLES 




Z- o 

o 2 



~o 
o 
o 






o o o 
o o o 
o o o 



The Key NQ7 bis is used in the same manner as upon the 
Clarinet with 13 Keys. 

LEFT HAND 2 1 L d or Middle finger (open hole) 

The holes above being stopped, and the second finger 
raised, you obtain E§ of the first octave, first register. 

lie 



O 

o_ 
o" 

o 
o 



h 



Q -„ By gpeningthe . Q R a n and hy pinching _g_ 

g j= [j 12 ^ey you g || the lips you get G^ g 



in alt. 



I 



With this finger you trill Dl] with El; and in the 12 th Al| with Bt]. 

LEFT HAND 1st finger or index (open hole.) 

The thumb hole at the back of the instrument being 
stopped, you get Flj of the 1®? octave, l s _t register. 



i 



WW 



By opening the Q ~ _^ Do not pinch the lips for this 
j 12 Key you get ^£ 



01,. 



r - ~ r - 

last note or you will make it 
" too sharp. 



By stopping the ^J 1 finger and open. J) — n 

ingthe thumb- hole you make F#. P > fy» EEa 



With this finger you trill El| with Ft); F^ withGjand inthel2 th 
B^ with Ctj. 

This hole serves to produce the sounds of the 3rd Register or 
in alt. 

LEFT HAND Thumb (open hole.) 

The thumb being raised -i 
you obtain G-b. S 



bg > 



1 



nr ° 

O or O 

O S- 

° 8 

o ° 



With this thumb you trill Ffa, with Gfcj. 

To facilitate the holding of the instrument you may 
close the hole of the left hand third finger.This will not 
injure the accuracj 1 - of the other notes. 

NOTE. The thumb- hole will not be marked in the tab- 
les; you will know that above Ft it is always open as far 
as Bt; with the exception however of thei^ taken with 
the 8t h Key, and the shake of Flj with Gt, which is trilled 
with the Otj 1 Key. In these two cases the thumb-hole must 
be stopped. 



KEY N2 8 (Closed) 

This Key is taken with the first finger of the right 
hand and makes F# or Gl; it is used principally for trill. 
ing. 

NOTE. The thumb hole must be always stopped when 
this Key is used. _ . . ,, . a+ . l_ 

By openingthe n v— „„ — 



8 g 8 § 



By raising the l s _t #« vs. 
finger of the right q — or - 



Q By openingtfte q ir ~ or ~ finger of Uie rignt a 

fc , k || 12 th Key you get (ft =fl hand and closing gj 

** . » n C#or Dk «J o o the secondfinger *T 



o_ o hole (same hand; _o o_ 
o g" you obtain G#orAk g g 
o o o o 



This Key is used to trill El> with Fb, Eh, with F#,E# with F#, or 
FljwithGb; in the 12t_h Bb> with Cb,, Bq with C#,B#with C#,orCb, 
with Dl}j and in alt F# with G#. 

KEY N2 9 (Closed.) 

This Key is taken with the 3 r _"phalanx (joint) of the 
first finger of the left hand, and makes G-$ or ' A\>. 

s. 




By opening the 12th Key, you getDfcin alt.fSs: 



1 



This Key serves to trill Fb, with Glj,F# with G#, and Gb, withAb,; 
in the 12th it is only used to trill Cb_ with Dlj. 

KEY N°_10 (Closed.) 

This Key is taken with the first finger of the left hand, 
2 n _ d phalanx, and gives At/: by pressing upwards it would 
open Key No 9. ^ ^ ^ 

|By openingthe - jg ~ u Y ou make easily with— & 



10 

o 
o 
_o 

"o 
o 
o 



1-D.y uyejujjg uie - 
12t. h Keyyouob.f 
tain Ek ' 



10 
o 
o 
o_ 
o 
o 
o 



rapidity C and 



o 10 
o o 
o o 

o" 2. 

o o 

o o 

o 



1 



This Key serves to trill Gtj with A!}, and G# with Alj; in thel2 th 
D with Ek 



KEY N? 10 bis (Closed.) 

This Key is taken with the first finger of the right hand 
and makes A\\ in conjunction with Key N210 it gives an 
excellent B\>. 



W'\ . HvV^ N I 



lObis. 
o 

o 
o 

o" 
o 
o 



10 bis, 
10 

o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 



This Key serves to trill Gb, with Ab^ A# with Bb,,or Bl» withCk. 
in the 12th Ct| with Db,. 

KEY N2 11 (Closed.) 

This Key is taken with the first finger of the right 
hand, and is only employed in trills, shakes or turns.The 
Key N'210 is alwa) T s open when this one is used. 

This Key is used to trill At] with Bb^ Bt| with C^in the 12th jfc 

with Fb,, Eh, with Fb,. 

KEY N2 12 (Closed.) 

This Key is taken with the thumb of the left hand,and 
makes conjointly with Key N210^#ori?£. 



1 



m 



*< 



12 
10 
O 
o 
o_ 
o 
o 
o 



12 
10 
o 
o 
o_ 
o 
o 
o 



It is used to make the 12^ s , and to pass into the 2 n - d 
register where it remains constantly open, as also in 
the 3 r j* register (in alt): in the tables Ave do not mark it 
above the A# or B}. 

This Key is used to trill Aijwith A#(or BW This Key is a dif- 
ficult one to do well. 



The fingering of the Boehm Clarinet differs from that of the Clarinet with 15 Kej^s only in the forked notes which 
are got rid of. The other fingerings remain the same. 
The^ forked notes on the ordinary 13 Keyed Clarinet are the following: 



Dull, and 
too sharp. 



Rather dull. 
V 



Too sharp 
and y shriek 
ing. b,£ 



Too sharp. 



Dull, and much 
too sharp. 



Too sharp 
and feeble. 



Passable. 



! Dull, and much [Passable (difficult 
too sharp, i to take w piano.) 




We see by the above table that there are only nine notes 
of which the fingering is changed; or more properly speak- 
ing, only three, since the others are made in the same pos_ 

itions; namely. _ ,. T „ oU 

I ' / ■> In alt. . In alt l 

sdulc 



same 



fingering. ( 



In alt. 
J In the 12 th^ 



fingering.f Chalumeau 
fingering( Chalumeau ^ t | "~" 



Chalumeau *J \, v 

3 /In the 12th 
same ; 



■>a. — 



* 



I 



As regards the ^sharps they are taken almost in the 
same way, that is to say by only using one finger instead 
of two, they are made upon the Boehm Clarinet in the an- 
nexed manner. -Q .. # s> #o tfo — n 



fr^PIP 



o°fo 

£ o 
o • 



a *-. 
a> o 

CO 



By suppressing the forked notes we gain the following 
shakes and passages. 



Little practised andbad 
upon the 13 Keyed Clarinet 




otr 

o 



otr 



otr 



otr 



• 


*'otr 


•6 


otr 


o 


6 


o 


O 


o 


O 



•6 

o 
o 
o 



o 
°6 

o 
o 
o 



5015 



o ^Gliding the first finger of the left 
hand upon the Key placed between that 
and the second finger. 




3E 



3E 



2 



fpl 



£ 



"O 

o 



I 



£ 




#1 f 



*? 



O 

o 



5 



3E 



2 



HP 



a y 



•6 

o 

o 
o 



3E 



5 



E 



6 



8 



9 



10 



fife 

• • «6 



Wi? Tf ^1 ™ 



2 



// " / / 




2orY 



£■ O 

• o 

o o 
o 



4 



o 
o 



• 

o 
• 
6 o 



o 
o 



o 

o 



• 
o 
o. 

o 
o 




2 



5 



13 



2 



— • 5t • « 



14 



2 



// " // 



T • P • • • • 



2 



TF^ 



o ; 

• 

5 

o 



o 
o 



o 
o_ 

o 
o 



o" 

o 
o 



o 
o_ 

•" 
o 
o 



o 
• o 

£ ° 

§ ° 



• • 

• o 

•62- 




3E 



5 



16 



2 



2 



2 



2 



17 



rfl g rti 



19 



^ 






o 





lorX 



If 






16 



O 

O 

o 



id: 



• 

o 
o. 

o 
o 



o 
o. 

o" 
o 
o 



o 
o 




5 



W=*=F 



22 



23 



4 



g f 'U 



^ 



lorX 



O O 

• oro 
O • 



24 



25 



5 



•6 

o 
o 
o 



a 




o 



2 



•6 

o 
o 
o 



3<V, 



27, 



28 



29 £ 



t £ 30 #£ £ tefi £ 



• • • 

• o • 

• ° • - o - v 



O 

• • 

• O 

• • 

lorX 




We shall be convinced of the advantage of this Instrument by the exercises which will be found in this 
work. 

5015 



TABLE OF TRILLS AND SHAKES (BOEHM) 

AND THE VARIOUS FINGERINGS FOR THEIR PRODUCTION. 

The sign tr indicates the finger or Key with which you make the trill or shake. 

The sign ? denotes that the first finger of the left hand should move upon its ring without unclosing it and upon 

the Key which is situate between that finger and the second one. 



=^= 



=^ 



=g^ 



=P= 



£ 2. » 

it p » 

op a? m 

1 ^.lO 

H H. O 

CD »2H CD 



€5 



3-Z 
3 itr 



Keep Key Z closed 

with the little fin. 

ger of the left hand. 

Trill Key X with 

the little finger 

X*r of the right hand. 



#? 



Ytr 2tr 

1# X## 

♦Keeping Key N?l closed. 

##KeepingKey X closed. 



Str Ztr 

NO 1. Trill Key N03 with 
the little finger of the right 
hand. 

NO 2. With the little finger 
of the left hand. 



2tr Ytr 

NOl.Trill with the little finger of the 
left hand. 

N02.With the little finger of the right 
hand. 

NOTE.The litjle finger of therighthand 
must not remain upon Key NO 3 during 
the trill. 



Synonym y 



^ 



f 



f 



F^ 



f 



~w- 



=^= 



~w- 



^w- 



*■* 



It* 



Atr tr 

2 keeping it open. J Trill with the 3™ finger 
Trill with the little finger | of the right hand, 
of the right hand. ! - 



i^ 



tr 

4# 
*Keep open Key NO 4. 
Trill with the 3 id finger. 



z= k 



fc 



• 

T? 
tr 

open.4 



or 



• dull and a 
J little flat. 



open4 



• 
tr 
O 



i 



FP 



^^ 



? 



¥ 



W 



^ 



=^= 



=£*= 



4e- 



~W- 



^ 

N02.«N93.«N04«N05. 



tr 

O 



*'# 



or 



-r" dull and 
g* flat. 



.#■ 

O 

*5tr 

O 

* Trill Key 5 with the third 
finger o f the right hand. 



N01. 



N°2. 



XJ 



tr 

o 

o 



o 

o 



6tr 



o 
o 



N21.Oo.od. 

NO 2. A little sharp can only be 
done in a "piano passage, Itmust 
be trilled with the little finger 
of the left hand. 



N21.' 



o 

tr 

O 



N22.« 
O 

o 

tr 



N23.( 



tr 

o 

5 

O 



The trill N03must be made 
by keeping Key 5 open with 
the3ldfi n ger of the right 
hand and trillingwith the 
l s .t finger. 



N01.« 



*6tr £> 
"o "o 2 

• o • 



6tr 



• 

*6tr *7 

• o 

O • « Q 5 o 

Trill NO 4 is the best. 
Trill NOB is good, relaxing 
the lips for the C: 



Synonyme. 



P 



$ 



* 



3^ 



i 



^ 



=^= 



=S^ 



^= 






^5= 



F=^ 



#^ fv "' \ 



O - 



O 

o 
o 



•Qtr 
o 

o 
o 



N01. 



*6 

~o 

o 
o 



N02.« 
7tr» ( 

"o" 

O 

o 



NO 2 relax the lips 
a little to make it 
accurate. 



N01. • O 
trO 
tr& 

o 
o 
o 



N?2. 



8^.6 
O 

o 
o 



NOl glide the I s . 1 finger of the left 
hand upon the Key which is between 
that and the 2 r .d finger and trill with 
both fingers. 

NO 2 relax the lips a little. 



7bi< 



O 
O 
O 



• 2 • 

•„ tr 

o 7/r 5. 

s § 



tr 

o_ 

o 
o 
o 



tr 



O 

o 
o 



Both ways are good! 



5015 



10 



Synonyme. 



^jf 






^^ 



o 


o 


o 


o 


tr 


o 


O 


tr 


o 


o 



►o- 



o 
o, 

o 
o 

tr 



Synonyme. 



m 



o- 



^ 



&*- 



N91. <r N rt 2./r N<J3.» 

7bis. 7 _7bis. 

o 



o 
o 
o 



o 
o 
o 



O 

o 

o 



N<? 3. usual way (easiest.) 



tr 

O 

_o_ 

o 
o 
o 



o 

fir 

o_ 

o 
o 
o 



N21. • 
O 
O 

O 

o 
o 






N22.» 
8<rO 

_o. 

O 

o 
o 



Synonyme. 



NQl.trill with the thumb. 
N<?2. easier- trill with 
the fit] 1 Key. 



K*- 



8£ro 
O 

J?- 

o 
o 
o 



to: 



Above this note the thumb -hole is always open. 

Synonyme. 



^ 



^= 



£ 



=P= 



5 U* J L^ 



=^= 



m 



*= 



po- 



K»- 



SE 



NQl. fr" 
O 

_o_ 

o 
o 
o 



N92. 



9fr 

O 
O 

o 

o 
o 
o 



N?l. trill with the thumb. 
N92.1eave the thumb on the hole 
and trill with the 9t n Key. 



tr 

o 
_o 

o 
o 
o 



809tr 

O 

o_ 

o 
o 

o 



Close the thumb. 
Open Key8. 
.Trill withKey9. 



9tr 

o 
o 

_•_ 

o 
o 
o 



The 3 r - d finger of the right 
hand supports the instru- 
ment if necessary. 



10 
O 
O 

_•. 

O 

o 
o 



lObis. 

O 

O 

_•, 

O 

o 
o 



m 



=^= 



$=?: 



^= 



w- 



=^= 



^= 



HE 



tto: 



o: 



jce 



lire- 



rO" 



N?l. 10/^ 

9 

O 
O 

_•_ 

o 
o 
o 



N<?2. 10 Ms. N?3. 12£r 
9 9 

o o 

o o 



o 
o 
o 



o 
o 
o 



NCI. Open Key9 and trill with the 
first phalanx of the finger. 
N92. Good- rather sharp. 
N9.3. Little used. 



N91. Mr N92. i2tr 
9 10&- 

O 9 

o o 

• o 

o" 2- 

o o 

o o i 

o 

N9l. not in tune- must be adjusted by 
the lips. 

N9. 2. very difficult; Key 9 must be tak- 
en with the second phalanx of the first 
finger and trill with the first phalanx 
and the thumb together. 



6-10 bis. 
11 
O 

o 

_•_ 

o 
o 
o 



12A" 
10 

o 
o 

• 

o 

o 
o 



iitr 

10 

o 
o 

• 

o 
o 
o 



12 

frlObis. 
10 
O 
O 

_•_ 

o 
o 
o 



i 



4 



Above this note Key N912 is constantly open. 

Synonyme 
tr k tr 



i 



o- 



± 



o- 



\tr 



Xtr 



Ytr %tr 
1 X 



2tr • 
Ytr 



3*r Ztr 



Synonyme. 






20" Y<r 



4*r 
2 



J- 



fro- 



^ 



tr 



^o- 



± 



Synonyme 



k*- 



2D= 



1 



irrr 



4*r 



tr 



tr 

4 



I 



tr 
4 



• 

*r dull 

• and flat. 

4 



fr* 



ft** 



o 



1 






O 



5015 



J> 



Synonyme. 



fEE 



J> 



=s?jr 



~npv.« y g a. g- 



trhO 

O 



6" 
ho- 



J> 



tr 

o 



3orZ 



tr 

o 
o 






o 

tr 

O 



O ft- 

O 50 
fr* o 



J> 



Synonyme. 



r& 



>yj&_ 



,J> 



N»l. • M»V.* N?3T»~ 



o 



•6^*5- 



•o ° 



5 



o 



o • o »o 

N2 3 and 4 preferable slightly 
relaxing the lips. 



Do 



Ngl * 



"^523 



*6fr- ^6 

o &• 

o o 

o o 



\\ 



J 






J) 






synonyme. 



it 



ie: 



3 D tr 

trtr • 



-tr~ 



O 

o 
o 



o 
o 
o 



*6 £ 

° O 

o ° 



S. 7lr »6 

• o" 
o 
o 



tr 

3orZ 



'/•< 



6 _° 



O 

o 
o 



o 

o 

o 



Itr 

o_ 

o 

o 
o 



tr7lis.tr tr 



° O 



o 
o 
o 



o 
o 



o 
o 



3 

o 
o 



o 
o 
o 



o 
o 
o 



o. 
o 
o 
o 



^ 



Synonyme 

4^. 



^ ^ ^ 



bo. 



j> 



|o_ 



J 



o. 



Synonyme. 



'** jf£ ^ l£ 



1 



rr 



• "To 

7 O 

o — ■ 
o 
• 
o 



■SUL 



-fr- 



XL 



8fr'8fr " 



iSZe 



-e- 

_o_ 

tr 

O 

o 



-e- 
o_ 

o 

tr 

O 



-e — •— 

O tr* 

li 



S4r^ 



o_ 

o 
o 



-e- 
o_ 

o 
o 
o 



-e- 
tr 



Tm 



o_ 

o 
o 
o 



o 
o 

o 



o_ 

o 
o 
o 



o 
_o. 

o 
o 
o 



o_ 

o 
o 
o 



tr 



o_ 
o 
o 
o 



tr 



M 



** 






g^ lObis^;, 



J) atr 



Synonyme 



#i> s £ ^ t| ^ 



S^= 



^^ 



3S^ 



L^ 

^ 



-9&* 



^•rr^-M 



} 



W 



OT 






M 



* 



y?i. ,iM 



rz 



£53; 



3f?£ 



IT 



XL 



XC 



XT 



XC 



XT 



~ M IT 



EC 



u: 



-e- 

o_ 

o 
o 
o 



-e- 

0_ 

o 
o 
o 



-e- 

• 
tr 
tr 



-e- 
o_ 
o 
o 
o 



• 
tr 
O 



5£ro 
O 



NOl.2 and 3 are very good. 

N<?4 comes out with difficulty; the Key 

must be scarcely half opened. 



O 
tr 



tr 

O 



•. Z- w 6tr 



o 
o 



o 
o 



tr 

O 

o 



tr 



o 
o 



N9.1 good. 
NC 2 comes out with 
difficulty. 



^ #B^I 



M' 



J) 



t?o- 



J) 



£ 



^ & 4 #| k l i ^ ii| 



ii 


— Synonyme. r 
















j Synonyme. r 




-H 


>f •- 

o 

tr 

O 
4 


— • • l 

_• • 

O tr 

O 5o 
tr © 
4 4 


' •— 

tr 

5S 
O 
4 


— • — 
tr 

o 

• 
o 

4 


n 

— • — 

o 

O- 

• 
4 


o 
o 

o 
o 
o 

4 


O (J (J 

• i^* • 

"o o o 
o o o 
o o o 

4 4 4 


— • 

o 
o 
o 

4 


tr 

• 

O 
O 

o 

4 


: — • — S~~* L 

tr Q 7tr* a 

\ o" o 

° s 
° 2 

4 4 


i> li 

fr- : 

! O 

: o 
o 

4 



J 



/a- 



*H 



•i lfS 



J) 



is 



M' 



J> 



6- 



J> 






J 



IB 





7tro_ 
O 

o 
o 

4 


n * 

Ojlintr g" 

° V 
° • 

4 4 


n 

j # 1 

• 

• 
tr 
tr 

4 


J # 1 

• 

tr 

• 
O 
4 


J « L 

• 

o 
4 


n 

I « L 

• 
o 
tr 
o 
4 


iOtr 

\ e ■- 

• 
• 

o 
o 
o 
4 


o 

• 1 

^6tr 

O 
o 
o 
4 : 



5015 



12 



TABLE OF TRILLS OR SHAKES BOTH MAJOR AND MINOR. 

THEIR RESOLUTIONS AND DIFFERENT FINGERINGS. 



The sign tr indicates the finger or Key with which you make the trill or shake. 

The sign ? denotes that the first finger of the left hand should move upon its ring without unclosing 
it and upon the Key which is situated between that finger and the second one. 



in ./'major in /'minor 
or D minor. 



in D major. 



> i in G major. 



in F major. 



E 



w 

o 1 • 



tr B 



^^=F 



^^ 



^5 



h tr S 5 j 



3 3 



itr' 



or 
Z 



5 



i I- 



Ytr Y 



o 



2tr2 



or 
Y 2 



Ij-o- i +■ 



• t»- ~3 ^ 



or s- 



lf» a 



3fr*i 3 



ZtTXZ 



in £Hittle used by reason ! 

of its termination, in E minor. 



in G major and 
in G minor. 



in E major. 



I tr S3 



i 



f 



^^ 



F^= g 



S fr- es : 



c 3Z F^ 



*>t,31 t 



3 3 2iT3 1 3 2 



J3 tf 



ifcH 



2trx 2 



fe^m 



Y/riY 



*Tl 






* *2*- x a x 



€ 



4 4 2^X 3 4 



i 



in F minor. 



in Ab major. 



1 ' in F major. or 



in D minor. 



1 ■ in F# minor and 



3EZ 



liiihfl i 



) tr Eg 



^ 



h fr- g 1 I II N 



=^ 



4//*3 



cf 



i# k 



4frZ 



^r o i ? 3 



o 



£- 



3 3 

#The F can be made with 
the Key Z at the will of the 
performer. 



O 



*? 



tr 3 






tr • , 
4 2 4 



in ^ major. 



in ^# major. Synonyme. in F $ maJor 



in^i minor. 



in E't> major. 



h^n\A \h^M 



5 g K 



-. g B 



- ..- 3 g a l_ „__„ __ __ 

• . I • I • • z • r n • • • • 5 * • • • • I 



tr 

4 2 4 



o 



§ «. : 

tr • 



4 



2 4 



O 

o 



tr • 

4 ? 4 



• 

o 
o 



or 



o tr 

4 



2 4 



: ? 



o 
o 



• 
tr 
tr 
4 



# 



in # minor. 



in .#£ major. 



i! in (? major, 
in JE" minor. 



in £ major. 



in Gf# minor. 



f i :i : a : :A I 1:::; iiUii ji:i j 



in ^ major Q vr irmvmp» 

in ^ minor. Synonyme. in cl> 



major. 



in Ab major, 
in /'minor. 



in /"major 



O • O 

btr »° 

O 4 

in C major, 
in minor. 




5015 



# 



in A minor. 



in A major and 
in F% minor. 



J3 



in A major. 



in A minor. 



in B\> minor. 



^= 



^ 



o 
o 
o 

tr 

• 
o 



P J Vto ^ y V'o Ji W ~ Vta J^'Q 



o 
o 



in -#f> major, 
in 2?p minor. 



• • * J 

6 • • • 

"o _£*"• o 

o o • • 

o • o o c 

in B\> major and 

in G minor. 



• • • • 

■*- • o 

o • • 

s • ° 



:*7*«i if 
: « : : : : 



=&^= 



o 
o 
o 



in # major. 



__6 efr-— — 

"o ■ — • ° 

o g o o 

in i? minor 



t* 



• 
_6 

o 
o 
o 



"^H 



It 



: .: 

goo 
o o o 



• 
o 
o 



in D major and 
in D minor. 



O ^ f. ° 

o o o o 
° o o o 



o 
o 

o 



o_ 

o 
o 
o 



• 2 2 • • • 2 2 • • • 2 • 2 '• • 2 • • 
^ :„*.: : ^ a-:;. • £ : : 2 ° £ 2 : 



=&- 



• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


tr 


• 


• 


o 


• 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 






© 
# 
O 
o 



o 

o 
o 



o 
o 
o 



o o 
• o 
o o 



o 
o 



• 


1 • 


o 


• 
tr 


o 


6 


o 


o 


o 


o 




o 



t% 



-e- 



m 



• • • 

o o * 



o_ 

o 
o 
o 



o o o 



• o 
o o 



o_ 

o 
o 
o 




B major and 
0% minor. 



in C\> major, 
in A \> minor. 



^ 



in A \> major. 



in C minor. 



in E\> major and 
in 18 p minor. 



m 



^ 



^ 



^ 



n 



tt 






V 



* 



VJ=$ 



m 



m 



i • • • 

7bis7bisfr-« O 



• 
• 


• 

•fi 


• 
• 
• 


— — ■ 






O 

• 




o 


o 
• 
o 


o 


o 



tr 



7o 

■56-^6 ^ 



8 o" 2 o 

° ° O ° n 
O u O ° 



in 
in 



C major. 
A minor. 



in C major. 



; o-o ^ • 

7o *" • • 

° o o o o 
o o o o o 
© o o o o 



in A major. 



rr 



7o7*ro 



• O 



o 


o 


o o 


o 


o 


o 


o o 


o 


u 


o 


o o 


o 



2. o —- 

8 8 §§ 

O 



o 



o o 



7bis 

o_ 

O 
O 
O 



in C$ major. 



in C% 



minor. 



^ 



=&^= 



=&^ 



^ 



m 



$ 



p 



s 



:? 



s 



f iffff •*?*.*? 



=&^= 



p 



"X3T 

tr 

o_ 
"o 

O 

o 



is 



o 



• o. 

o ° 

o Q 



o 
o 
o 



• 9. 

"o o 

o o 

o o 



• 
o 
o. 

o 
o 
o 



•I 

° o 

§ °" 
o ° 

° o 



:: 

§§ 



o 
o 
o 



o 

"o 
o 
o 



• 
o 
_o 

o 
o 



o o 
o o 
o 



6 or 



O 
O 

O 



2-7o 

o -z 

o 

o 



o 
o 
o 



o g o 

° o ° 

o- ° o 



in .S 7 major, 
in ^ minor . 



&E 



in i>l> 



major. 



B\, 



minor . 



in B major. 



^= 



s m s 



^ 



^twfl 



3? 



^o \, r * \ 



m 



m 



^L 7bis O 7bis 



^W 



tr 

o 
o 

"•" 
o 
o 



o 
o 
o 



^ 



o 

o 

o 
o 
o 



o 
o 

o 

tr 

o 



o ° 

o 
o 



o 



o 



• 
o 
_o 

o 
o 
o 



o 

° z 

O tr 

O 7— 

o o 

° o 



570 

§ ° 



o 



o 



o 
o 
o 



o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 



• o 

°8 



o 
o 
o 



o — o -r 
o g= § 

8 ° § ° 



AT 



o 

§ 8 

n O 



£7* 

5 8 

o S 



o 
o 
o 



in J) minor. 



in ^maj: and F min: 



in D major 



and 



B minor. 



"W^ 



v=^ 5: 



^ 



S 



o 'fr 
o o 

o 3 

o o 

o o 

o 



• 2 
o £ 



o 



o_ 

o" 
o 
o 



^= 



o 



tr 

Z 8- 

o O 
o O 
o O 



s 



•*8 

o o 

o o 
o o 
o o 






o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 



o 



o o 



o 



75" 

o 

o 
o 
o 



^= 



ti 



Trill with the thumb. 



-O- 



g 



°« • • • 

O 8&- • O 

O O 



O o 

o 2 



o o 
o o 
o o 



IT 

o 
o 
o 



Si 



o o 

o o 

o 

The F# with the thumb 
and trill with Key 8. 



O- 



o(r Q 
_o o 

O o 
O o 
o 



o 

o 
o 





^^ 



o 

o_ 

o 
o 
o 



Trill with key 8 and the 
last^# with the thumb. 



i 



^F 



m 






o o • o 

_o_ o_ o_ 

o o "J" o 

o o o o 

o o o 



o 
_o 

o 
o 
o 



Trill with the thumb. 



5015 



in L% 



minor. 



o§P^ 



Wr 



F$ 



C\> major. 
£\> minor. 



E\? 



major 



and 



^ : 8 

2. O 7Ma° 
O O 



o 
o 



o 
o 



9. o 

o o 

o o 
o 



• 

7bis 
O 

O 
O 
O 






1- 



o8frO 
O 



o 

O 
4 



O 

o 
o 

4 



• O 
7bisO 

o o 
o o 
o 



o 

o 
o 
o 
\ 



The last F# with the 
thumb is prelerable. 



I O i 



80^ I O '• O 

08tro • o 
£. O 7biflO 
o 



/r a I - == I I j tr a^ 



o 
• o 

7biao 
O 



I I 


4 



o 
o 
o 
4 



o 
o o 
o o 
O 4 
4 



o 
o 
o 
4 



o 
o 
o 

4 



o • • ; 

O ° 7uis7bi8 7bi 8 

o 7 o 8 ° o 

"o o o 

o ° o 

o o o 

4 4 4 



o 

4 



Trill with the thumb. 



14 



i 



in G minor. 
-r— tr — -= 



in C major. 

. tr 



in G major 
-tr 



and 



S b^ 



in E minor. 



in E major 
in C $ minor. 



3x: 



Oo 9tr • O # 
O o • O • 
O O 7 O O 7_o. 

o" -S- "5"o" o 

o o o o o 
o o o o 

Leave Lhe thumb on the hole 
and trill with the 9*2 l Key. 



<> u 



9tr 

o 
o 
o_ 

o" 

o 
o 
4 



hs*- 



• 


o 


• 


o 


u 


n 


o 


u 


o 


o 


o 


n 


o 


u 


n 


o 


u 


O 



Trill with the 9l h Key. 



HE 



m 



tr 

o 
o 

o 
o 
o 
4 



to: 



s 



• 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 
4 



tr • 

o o 
o o 



o 

o 

o 

4 



O 

o 

o 

4 



o 

o 

o 
o 
o 



9 ^9tr m o» 

O SO 080 
O _£_ 

O O 

O O 

O O 

4 4 



o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


4 


4 



in C$ major 



in F minor . 



^r 



9 
O 

o 
o 



to: 



Se 



W- 



te 



15=^: 



^en 



BZZZ 



9^ o»0 v Q 



S 



O ^ 

o o 

o o 



4 



O 

4 



o o 


n 


o o 


n 






o o 


o 


o o 


o 


o o 


o 


4 4 


4 



9 '9fr. u O 



in ^l> major 



£ 



K>- 



i 



in Z 7 major 

-tr— 



and 



-O- 



32 



in i? minor. 



ii 



B 



-o- 



o 



o 


o 


o 


o 


n 


u 


u 


o 


o 


o 


u 


o 


~~- 






o 
o 
o 


o 
o 
n 


o 
o 
o 


o 

o 
o 


o 
o 
o 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 



9fir 


o 


9 


O 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


u 


o 


o 


o 
o 


o 
4 


o 
o 



10 


o 


G 


o 


u 


o 


o 




o 

o 
n 


o 
o 
o 


ft 


4 



lOfr-10 



o- 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


4 


4 



o 
o 
o 

o" 
o 
o 

4 



o 

o 

o 
o 
b 
4 



in ^ ^ minor and in A major. 



i!S= 



Bo " i^bti 



22 



in J^ major. 

-tr- 



N92 Synonyme. 



Q 1 B | I I I s g S I 



in ^ l>--minor 



fe^S 



s 



**5 



^ t 



major. 



^m 



«t 



bis§6 9 1U 



12" 
10 

O 

o 

• 

o 
o 

o 



12" 

10 

o 
o 

• 

o 

o 
o 



1210bistr q 

10 9 •" 
o o 
o o 

• • 



10/ 

o 
o 
_o_ 

~o 

o 
o 
4 



SO 9 

8° 

o o 

2 o 

o o 

4 O 

4 



iO 

o 
o 

o" 
o 
o 

4 



9 

o 
o 
o_ 

o 
o 
o 



° ° o 

£° o 

° ° £ 

o o o 

o o o 

4 o O 

4 4 



9 

o 
o 

• 

o" 

o 
o 



2 
o o 

. — ' • 

o 

° 2 

°8 



o 
o 

o 
o 
o 



10 

o 

o 

• 



o 
o 
o 



o 
o 
o 



o o 
o o 

— • 
o — 

° 2 

°8 



o 



o 

o 
o 



o 
o 

o 



o O 

o o 

o o 



• 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 



1* lUDis 9 o 
10 9 O O O 

o O « o • 

• • o-r o 

8 8 §§ § 

o o u 



* 



in <? minor. 

h tr g j 



in -B\} major & in B\> minor, in G major & in E minor. in G major. 



as: 



tr g 






ft 



£ 



J* bo 8 



5 



£^# 



*# 



minor , 



msi - 



■i*^ 



TiyF)Tsi>*igbiso 10 "■ J§ Md 



11 ll*r o 10 12 



• 12 9 ia M, 9 

J M0bis o 10 o 



10 so bigg o 
• o 



o 
o 



o 
o 

o 



o 
o 

_•_ 

o 
o 
o 



§8 

° 8 



o 

o 



o 
o 
o 



10 O 

o 



o 
o 
o 



10 

o 
o 

• 

o 
o 
o 



o o 
• o 

oi 

o o 

o o 

o 



o 

o 

•_ 

o 
o 
o 



10 

o 

o 

o 
o 
o 



IT" 
10 

o 
o 

•_ 

o 
o 
o 



o 


10 


o 


o 


• 


o 


o 


_•_ 


o 


o 


n 


o 








o 
o 
o 

"o~ 
o 
o 



10 10 

o o 

o o 

_•_ _•_ 

o o 

o o 

o o 



o o 
• o 

— • 
o -r 



o 

o 



lorX 



# 



in B major in 



B minor, in J% minor and 






^m 



*n 



«± 



US. 






major 



H$ 



^ 



in A\> major and 
in F minor. 



¥^ 



^ 



£ 



in B major. 



J&fl l J-l^fl 



E 



O 

o 

_• 

o 
o 
o 



in C major. 



o o 


o 


• o 


• 


— • 




o— - 


o 


o o 


o 


n o 


o 


o 





¥ m I I M°h 



• T 13 % jo 

• frlObisJ }g 



-• — IS 



12- 



-• — ** — ?rt2 
• M0bis9 J 

•-10 O *" 

o 2 



ftM?' 9 



^P^1012 ' '10 
l^O 10 O 



• O • 

• o • 



10 

o 
o 

_• 

o 
o 
o 



o 

o o 
• o 

oi 

o o 

o o 

o 



•frlOMs^ 10 



o 
o 



o 
o 
o 



o 



9 

o 
o 

? • 



o 



o o 
o o 
o o 



o 
o 
o, 



o 
o 

.• o 



o 
o 
o 



2 o 
o o 



o 



o 



o 
o 
o 



o o 
• o 

oi 

o o 

o o 

o 



o 

o 

_•_ 

o 
o 
o 



Z 2 • ° 



o 



o 



o 

_• 

o 
o 
o 



3 3 



itr 



in C minor. 



in A minor 

-b-tr 



in A major. 

4r- 




15 



* 



in G major. 



££■& 



3fr3i 3 



feft 



• i 



ZfrX z 



in B minor. 

h tr 



TT 



e 



Ytr 1 Y 



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5015 



18 



OF FINGERING IN GENERAL. 

The perfection of execution depends to a great ex- 
tent on that of fingering. 

The Clarinet having made immense progress dur- 
ing the past few years, the music written for it offers 
every instant new passages of which the fingering can- 
not he determined hy fixed rules, hut although the 
greater part of those fingerings depend upon the taste 
and ahility of the artist, he must not too readily de- 
part from ordinary rules: And it is good to admit in 
principle that the most simple fingerings are nearly 
always the "best. 

In order to avoid heing stopped by any passage, 
it is necessary to have a through knowledge of the 
fingering of all the scales: that study is indispens- 
able for a rich and correct fingering. 



OF ACCENT OR EMPHASIS. 

In order to catch quite easily the rythm of a piece 
it is essential to define the measure or beat of the bar 
from the commencement- when the accented notes are 
well marked the ear is satisfied, and follows with 
greater judgment the rest of the piece. 

When a Bar of common time consists of two min- 
ims the accents are at the beginning of each note 5 
when it is composed of four crotchets, or eight quavers 
or sixteen semi-quavers you must emphasis the begin- 
ning of each one fourth of the bar,- this accentuation 
is absolutely necessary in solo passages, and in ar- 
peggio accompaniments. 

The accented notes are usually marked thus :==~ 
to denote the emphasis. 

OF THE NOTATION OF 
CLARINET MUSIC. 

The music for the Clarinet like that for the Violin, 
Flute etc. is written in the G Clef Jj and the Key 

(or scale) in which you are to play is ^indicated by the 
signature placed at the commencement of the piece. In 
Italian music, however, you meet with a large quantity 
written in the Clef of C on the fourth lineEJg== 



E in 
this case you must take your B\> Clarinet and play as 

if the piece were written in the G Clef. 

It is also fou nd written in the Clef of C on the 
first line EEppEEE then you must take your J Clarinet 
and pla5^ as if the music were written in the G Clef. 
It would be desirable if composers would adopt ex- 
clusively the Bl> Clarinet and write always for that 
instrument in the Clef of C on the fourth line. Thus 
instead of saying (L * | | C when it is the Bl? Clarinet, 

B\> and that would be 
we should speak of the 



V 



we should say * =lfP|z; 

infinitely better, b 

notes as they are heard, and not according to their 

relation with the instrument. 



STUDY AND PRACTICE. 

Few persons derive from their labours all the ad- 
vantage they expect,- this arises from the want of 
knowing how to direct their studies, not having had 
a sure guide to conduct them. 

Without insisting on a rigorous rule, I give my 
advice as to employing the time devoted to prac- 
tice; I will state then, that four hours a day ought 
to be sufficient if disposed of in the following man- 
ner. 

The first hour, should be bestowed on the perfect 
production of prolonged sounds over the whole com- 
pass of the Clarinet so as to acquire roundness of 
tone and softness of execution. 

The second "hour, the practise of scales and of 
distributed chords in the different keys so as to 
gain a knowledge of the mechanism, and equality 
in the fingers. 

The third hour, the practice of articulation and 
of the various degrees of light and shade (piano and 
forte ) 

The fourth hour, should be employed in recapit- 
ulating the preceding studies, and in practising the 
execution of the best works written for the Clarinet. 

Whatever may be the time which the pupil can 
devote each day, he will do well to regulate it ac- 
cording to the above arrangement, taking care at 
all times to adapt it to his age and his powers of 
endurance . 



ADVICE TO BEGINNERS. 

I would strongly recommend to pupils who have 
an earnest desire to attain proficiency, that they 
read with attention and at once put in practice the 
prescribed rules upon the manner of breathing, of 
emitting, and continuing the sound, they should prac- 
tise: slurring and sustaining the notes, rendering 
their fingers quite independent of each other ; mak- 
ing them fall with precision on the holes and act 
with a simultaneous and equal movement, since it 
is frequently necessary to raise or fall several 
fingers at once 

With a desire to facilitate for beginners the read- 
ing of music applicable to this instrument, I have 
combined the values of notes with bars and different 
times in such a manner as will give them in this 
Method a complete system for the instrument. 

These exercises are so set out that in the end the 
pupil will have acquired a thorough knowledge of all 
the scales both in sharp and flat keys. 

At the commencement of each exercisel have placed 
the scale of the key, the notes of the perfect com- 
mon chord and of the dominant seventh, because these 
are always to be found in nearly every musical com- 
bination. 

The scales, exercises etc. are arranged with an 
accompaniment for a second Clarinet. 



5015 



19 



FIRST SOUNDS TO BE PRACTISED. 



The first labours of a pupil must be directed towards the practice of plain sounds. He must at- 
tack the note with a sharp stroke of the tongue and completely sustain the sound in all its power 
and without undulations to the end of the notes full value,- he must never jerk the notes nor leave 
preceptible gaps between a note and the one which follows when there are several under the same 
slur. The notes ought never to be intermittent: they must have the same intensity, and the same 
power, whatever may be the intervals between them. 

The movement (speed) of the following example is at the pleaure of the performer. The pupil who 
would learn to pitch the sound properly, will begin slowly, bearing in mind what I have before mentioned. 



1. 



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5015 



20 



PREPARATORY EXERCISES FOR TltE CHROMATIC SCALE. 



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24 



RESPIRATION, DEMI RESPIRATION 
AND THE MANNER OF BREATHING. 

Respiration consists of two actions, namely, aspiration which is the inhaling or introduction of 
air into the chest, and expiration, the expulsion of the air from the chest. In these two movements 
the lungs act like a bellows. Considered in relation with the art of playing the Clarinet, respiration 
consists in accomplishing the two phenomena of aspiration and expiration without taking the mouth- 
piece out of the mouth. 

Demi respiration consist in scarcely half opening the two corners of the mouth, in orderto renew 
the power of continuing the execution. 

You ought never to respire at the end of a bar, unless it is the termination of the phrase. 

To respire completely, you must await a rest, a finish of a phrase, or a cadence. 

Demi respiration is effected most frequently upon detached notes, or after having taking the first 
note of a bar. 

It is a very great fault to respire at each rest, particularly in broken time. 

When you commence playing, you must not hasten to take breath; it must be done slowly and 
imperceptibly.- because such apparent efforts are as fatiguing for the player as they are disagree- 
to those who listen. 



Demi respiration, denoted by a comma. 




You can respire on the beat of the bar, when the sense of the phrase terminates with the bar. 



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Demi respiration considered as a pleasing effect in taking a little slower certain notes to which one 
wishes to give a particular shade or expression. 



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5015 



SHADING. 25 

It is by the shadings we put into sounds that we produce the most beautiful effects in music; they are to mel- 
ody what the various colors are to a painting. It is impossible to reccommend too strongly the observance of 
shadings with a scrupulous exactitude. 

To become an adept in shading, you must give great attention to the practice of prolonged sounds .This forms 
quality of tone, gives broadness to the playing, and in a word, everything necessary for causingthe fingers to 
obey the impressions that we feel. 

There is a general rule which we must take care not to neglect. This rule consists in swelling or filling 
out the sound when a passage ascends, and in diminishing it when a passage descends. Nevertheless, as a 
matter of study and for shading, it will be as well to practise this rule in an inverse sense. 

THE SIGNS WHICH INDICATE THE DIFFERENT SHADES OF SOUND 

AND THE MANNER OF OBTAINING THEM. 

There are five principal signs used to indicate the different shades of sound. 

f_ Denotes that the sound must be loud (forte) and sustained. To obtain this sound, you must attack the 

note with a very sharp stroke of the tongue and sustain the sound equally without undulations during all 
duration of the note, the passage, or the phrase. 

p Signifies that the sound must be piano; to obtain this you must attack the note with a very gentle 

stroke of the tongue. The manner of guiding and sustaining the sound is the same as in the sound marked for- 
te. 

■— — Indicates that the sound must commence forte and go on gradually diminishing until it becomes 

piano. When the sign is placed at a forte you attack with vigour and diminish down to mezzo forte. When 
on the contrary you meet with the sign at a piano you must slightly strengthen the note under which it is 
found and diminish immediately according to the value of the note. 

Ordinarily when this sign is placed under a crotchet you make the note f orte-, it is often the contrary. Dir- 
ectly you have made expression of this shade you must diminish the sound during the note in order to get 
back to piano. 

For the application of these rules, I have composed some pieces specially intended for the practice of these 
different shadings. 

. Denotes that you must take the note with a soft stroke of the tongue and swell the sound pro- 
gressively up to a forte; always having regard to the value of the note under which the mark is placed. 
~ -This is the reunion of the two preceding marks. You must commence piano, and grad- 
ually increase the sound to half the length, which is the loudest point, then diminish in the same propor- 
tion until the sound arrives at piano, the point of departure. 

When the augmentation or diminution of sound extends over a considerable space we use in preference the 
words crescendo, decrescendo or diminuendo. 

The rinforzando is a more abrupt crescendo; it is indicated by rinf or rf 

The word tenuto, or ten. placed over a note requires that it should be held out slightly longer;this is equal- 
ly understood by the sign A. 

To denote the different degrees of intensity of sound,we use the signs below corresponding to the following 
expressions. 

PP (pianissimo) excessively soft, or piano. 
S.V. (sotto voce.) "in a low voice" very piano. 
P (piano.) soft, or feeble sound. 
m.p (mezzo piano.) demi feeble, moderately piano. 

m.v. (mezzo voce.)"half voice"(we understand by this the voice of the instrument.) 
mf (mezzo forte.) half loud, moderately forte. 
f (forte.) loud. 
j$f (fortissimo.) very loud. 

Sometimes the signppp is used to express the very smallest sound that can be madejand/yyto express 
the greatest force that can be used. 

A loud sound followed by a soft one, is indicated by fp{ forte and piano) and the sforzando,is marked by sf 
and has only action on the note under which it is placed. 
5015 



26 68 EXERCISES OF MECHANISM. 

The exercises of mechanism have for their object the formation of the fingering by habituating each fin_ 
ger to act separately or simultaneously. By these exercises may be acquired that equality of fingering 
and that purity of tone which are the finest qualities of an Instrumentalist. 

In the following exercises we must accentuate the sound upon the first note of each division of the bar. 
(see the article on accent, page 18.) 

Each bar or each sketch should be played eight or ten times and as a finish play the note after the dot- 
ted double bar. 

All the notes should be slurred, ascending passages played crescendo, descending passages diminu. 
endo.Csee the article as to different shades of sound, etc. page 25.) 



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Fifty Progressive Duets. 

for two Clarinets. 

Revised by Paul deVille. 

Exercise in Whole notes for sustaining the tones. 

Measure Of 2 beats. Joseph Kiiffner, Op.80. 



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Detach first Eighth note and slur the three others 



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Slur the first three notes and detach the fourth 



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3200-36 



34 



3! 



Syncopation in Halves and Quarter notes, 

(Syncopation in both parts) 

Q 



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r ~ - 

L^s) . — LI 



G major. 



17. 



I *pj J r p 



Syncopation in Quarter and Eighth notes 
Upper part syncopated , lower part even time 



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^ — ■ — ' — pi y — — — • — 

The same syncopations in both parts. 



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3200-36 



To tie the notes from one bar to another. 



35 



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Syncopations and ties from one bar to the other. 



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3200-26 



36 



Syncopation in triple time. 

(Tieing 3rd beat to 1st beat of following measure) 



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Mixed Syncopation In Eighths and Quarter notes in Triple time 



5 



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ra 



F=r=r 



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22.< 



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To acquire the unequal parts of % time. 



3=33 



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23. 



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Tonguing* of the same note, 



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24. 



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3200-26 




^Utitisi 



MM 



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The half-staccato. 



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To detach all the notes. 




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3200-26 



38 



% 



Strongly detached notes. 

Tempo di Minuetto. 



27. 



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Fine. 



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3200-26 



39 



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D.S-at Fine. 



Dotted Quarter notes. 



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28. 



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Tempo di Marcia 



* 



Dotted Eighth notes, 




i» J J»* 



£ 



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3200-26 



40 



30. 



The same Exercise. 



Tempo di marcia 



3 



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Triplets on the second Quarter note. 



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— >^ Triplets on the first 



s 



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fTws Zl? + 



Triplets on the first Quarter note. 



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32. 



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41 



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Triplets on the first and second Quarter note. 



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3 



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w m m 



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1 J J J * 
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3200-26 



D.S.alFine. 



« 



Eighth Rest. 



IPP 



HHg 



& 



g g ■ 

IS 



^m 



^ 



#H« 



34 



■( 



3= 



Pi 



P^f 



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a • g p 



^^ 



US 



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m 



Iff 



Pi 



P 



i 



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£ 



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* w \ * 



Sixteenth Rest in% time. 



* 



imp 



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s§ 



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^ 



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35. 



puns 



s? 



I 



s 




£ 



f 



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m 



wtfty 



m 



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is 



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p»^ 



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iiyjyjy 



Si 



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s: 



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^ 



3^1 



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ffl 



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The slur over half notes. 



4 



(2 ttj!2 



4 



£ 




a 



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36.< 



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PP 



P*f*f 



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n^r r r 



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fesi 



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3300-26 



43 



I 



I 



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ZEE 



l=£ 



iSEzfciff: 



t 



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f 






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g |p i r "T r 



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a is 



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jiji'ii j i'Ji J iUi J i ' ^i^ ^ 



77 D^" 



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g |g rg 



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$ 



i 



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■ F~» 



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m - m 



4 



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SICILIANO. 
Exercise on Grace notes, introducing- the key of C minor. 

^Major. 



=6= 



rk 



± 



4 



WZ-^M 



I 



± 



P 



|§^P 



^ 



ip 



tlT J P 



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37/ 



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B J. J J) 



B 



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p 



p^ 



£ 



is 





A 



Fine. 



I 



££? 



fe 




T" J i^> 



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53^ 



■>£ 5 



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g ft ,ffU I r fr ^fTr fes - 



f 



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fES 



^ffl 



ffiffi 



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i 



g 



P I J p a jjj p| v i jj ji i ^czr i czfczn 



Minor. 



35 ^ v 



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S 







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m 



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¥ 



13t 



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m 



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mm 



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3200-26 



D.S.al Fine. 



44 



Key of B flat 



Andante. 



38. 



5E 



~SL 



t 



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f^f 



Andante. ^. 



The Trill (Shake.) 



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3200-.26 



Ir pci^ 



*•, 



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j&l 






45 



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if 



pp^ipj|| j 



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si 



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e us 



¥ 



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Short Trill 



( &iir/r rl 



^ 



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40.< 



1 1 j-y; j J' 



s 



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3200-26 



46 



The Turn. 



Moderato. 



3 



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r77 



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41. 



m 



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1 _ — « — ^ *J f :**? J*J *J * J == 

— h p| — — : *— — J ~? ~7 — "— • & /• W m — - 



E imim ^^a 



5>3#3 



i ll J ^ r Gicr 



£ 



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ra 



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p 






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» * 



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# # 7 # 



• — # 



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1 



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as 



Andantino ^ e y °^ P minor and D major. 



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i 



m 



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* — ^~» 



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&- 



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m \ • 



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42. 



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Major. 



i 



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Fine. 



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3200-26 



47 



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mm 




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sb 



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* 



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p 



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Y 7 LIT 



43.< 



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t©- 5 - 



i©- 1 - 



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Spl 




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3200-26 



48 



Rondo form 

8 J, 



44. 



fesfe 



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'Major. 



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54 

PRACTICAL EXERCISES upon passages which are only executed with difficulty on 
the 13 Keyed Clarinet, but which become simple and easy on the Boehm Clarinet (with rings.) 

These exercises are adapted to familiarise you with the new mechanism, and are indispensa- 
ble for acquiring equality of the fingers. They are pricipallv intended for the exercise of the lit- 
tle fingers. 

The first 33 exercises should be played also in the 12^ s (Harmonics) that is to say, by o- 
pening the 12^ Key, or the 13^ on the ordinary Clarinet. 

Repeat each phrase several times until it is played with equality and celerity, always slur 
the notes in order to acquire a good tone. 






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59 

TABLE OF TONICS, LEADING NOTES, 
AND DOMINANTS. 

The tonic is the first note of the scale ; the leading note is the sharp (or major) seventh; it is always 
a semitone below the tonic. This note should be full sharp to the ear particularly when it resolves into 
the tonic. 

The dominant is the fifth note of the scale. The tonic, the leading note, and the dominant are the same 
in all scales, major or minor. 



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LEADING NOTES. 

We call the leading note" that which is a semitone below the tonic or keynote. 

The leading note always tends to approach the tonic, particularly when its resolution is into the lat- 
ter note; in that case it must be made to sound as sharp as possible. 

The leading notes of melody must also be always heard as sharp as possible in a concerto, or a solo; 
but when playing with an orchestra and this note is doubled with the flutes, hautboys, or bassoons the 
leading notes must be made with the regular fingerings in order to avoid making discords with the oth- 
er instruments. 

The following is a table of different fingerings for leading notes, and I recommend the pupil to learn 
them by heart so as to be able to apply them as occasion requires. 

5015 



60 



TABLE OF ALTERED OR LEADING NOTES AND THE 
DEGREES ON WHI€H THEY ARE FOUND. 



I do not mark the natural fingerings but only those fingerings which render the notes more or less 
sensitive. 
9 This sign denotes that you must place the finger on the edge of the ring. 



The natural fingerings are preferable I do not mark them. 



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61 



SCALES AND EXERCISES. 



Observe that each scale is followed by the distributed notes of the perfect common chord and the domin- 
ant seventh. 

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84 



CHANGE OF FINGERING ON THE SAME NOTE. 

There are certain effects very agreeable upon* stringed instruments which with a little aptitude can be 
rendered upon the Clarinet: such as (for example) the change of fingering on the same note. To work this 
effect, which is rarely met with (but which should be known so as to be able to do it when required) it is 
essential that the changes of. fingering do not cause the slightest interruption in the vibration given 
on the first note. 

Moderate 




5015 



85 

TASTE AND EXPRESSION IN MUSIC. 

Taste is the sentiment of the beautiful: this sentiment is natural, it is not acquired, it devel- 
opes itself. It is taste that appreciates light and shade and is the guide to expression. 

Expression is that faculty possessed by the artist of reproducing with energy^ with soul,- a- 
bove all with truth, the ideas which are within him and the sentiments he feels. Without the nec- 
essary gradations of light and shade music would be pale and uncolored,- for melody requires ex- 
pression as the earth requires light, as the body needs a soul. 

It is taste which reveals the true artist: music contains within itself a crowd of volatile 
shadows, mysterious and out of sight, which are beyond all rules and which the common mu- 
sician will let pass unperceived,- but the man of tact, the artist of taste will know where to find 
them.- much more, he will understand them. Thence he derives his animation he becomes influ- 
enced by the ideas which ruled the composition of the piece, he appropriates those ideas, makes 
them his own and imparts them to his audience, who, like himself, pass by turns from grief to 
joy, from calm and repose to the tumult and impetuosity of the passions. Then music is no longer 
an amusement, a recreation of the ear.- it attains a role far more imposing; it becomes a lan- 
guage strong, energetic and potent, which impresses the heart, silences the multitude, andleads 
them to great and noble actions. 

Such are the results produced by expression in music: results real and not imaginary. But they 
are not ordinary men who obtain these effects; great artists alone know the secret of them, and 
this secret empowers them in the force of their talent, in their genius,- and their success is never 
doubtful, for if the multitude have not genius at least they comprehend it, and are obedient to the 
feelings which that genius imparts to them. 

THE CADENCE. 

The cadence is a repose which indicates that the measure is suspended. 

The cadence diverts the imagination and allows the singer to display his talent of vocalisation, 
and the instrumentalist the brilliancy of his instrument. 

Good taste is the only rule to be consulted,- that alone will denote whether the movement should 
be slow or fast,- whether the cadence should be of long or short duration. 

GENERAL RULE. When the cadence is not tied to the phrase which follows, it is in good taste 
to leave an interval rather long than short between the finish of the cadence and the phrase which 
comes after. 



THE TRAIT OR PROMINENT PASSAGE. 

It is in the execution of the trait that we recognise and estimate the ability of the player,- for this 
reason he must strive to perform this passage with every desirable neatness. 

The first bars of the trait must be well posed and well accented, in order to catch easily the 
designs in its composition.' 

The finish of a trait always requires an amount of spirit and dash to bring it to a happy termi- 
nation. 



ARTICULATION. 

To articulate, is to make heard distinctly with neatness and precision all the notes of a trait, 
phrase or other piece adding there to the proper amount of shading and inflexion. 

There are two sorts of articulation-, the slurred and the detached. But these two articulations are 
combined of a thousand styles 5 and it is by a happy mixture of slurred and detached notes that we 
obtain the most beautiful results. As it would be difficult to give here all the various forms of 
articulations (for frequently they depend on the caprice and fancy of the player) I have arranged 
45 exercises on those which are most in use. 



5015 



86 



45 EXERCISES. 

UPON DIFFERENT COMBINATIONS OF ARTICULATION WITH STUDIES OF 

SIXTHS, OCTAVES, etc. 

Bear a little on the first note of the slur and lighten the last one where the bind finishes. ^ 

Edited and revised by 

4 notes slurred and 2 detached. C. L.STAATS. 



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5015 



98 



SLURRED NOTES, 



To bind the notes it is sufficient to set well the first, and by the same impulse, to produce the 
others without allowing to be heard the slightest separation. Sometimes the fingering of the in- 
strument presents intervals difficult to slur, because those intervals require fingerings which, 
in spite of the player, leave intermissions in the sound. That inconvenience is then only got rid 
of by the ability of the artist. 



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99 



POINTED NOTES. 



When the notes are simply pointed, you execute them by a soft stroke of the tongue, taking 
care to have a full breath always at your disposal,- the stroke of the tongue must be given in 

the sound. 

When the pointed notes are surmounted with a bind or tie, the stroke of the tongue must be sof- 
ter, and not quite so short as in the simple point. 



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J 01 



THE STACCATO. 



The staccato for wind instruments, corresponds most usually with the short bowing- on the violin, 
when each note is struck firmly and with the end of the bow. It is that effect which we must en. 
deavor to obtain, by attacking the note vigorously, and leaving a slight interval between each stroke 
of the tongue. 



Execute all through in the style of the first two bars. 
Andantino. 



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5015 



102 

THE PROPER RENDERING OF THE SOUND. 

As a general principle the first note of a trait, passage, group etc: ought to be firmly given and a 
trifle longer than the others; this particular accentuation is often indicated by the mark > placed 
under that note which does not mean that you are to attack the note with force, but render it with 
some decision, and use it as a leaning point for giving to the other notes an impulse of a warmer 
animated character. 

Grazioso. 




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104 



SYNCOPATION. 



A syncopated note is one whose value is greater than the notes before and after it. 

It must be played somewhat boldly from forte to piano, without causing to be felt the beat or note 
upon which it ends. 

Care must be taken not to confound syncopated notes with those which are tied: syncopation always 
goes against the beat. 

This lesson must be played by attacking the syncopation with a stroke of the tongue, however in- 
terrupting the sound from one note to another. This effect is produced by dexterity in raising the fin- 
gers. 



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106 



CUT OR INTERCEPTED NOTES. 



These are notes slurred two by two, and separated' by a rest from those which follow. 

You must slightly accentuate the first of the two and at once diminish the sound in going to the 
second which must be a little shorter. 

Generally when several notes are included under the same tie the last upon which the passage fin- 
ishes, is an intercepted note even when there is no following rest. It is by the dexterity of the 
fingers that you will succeed in executing these passages. It is the finger, which as soon as the 
note is heard, cuts off the sound and as it were throws it back into the instrument. 



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108 



SWELLED AND DIMINISHED SOUNDS 



Swelled sounds are made by attacking the note with a soft stroke of the tongue, and augmenting 
the sound little by little until it attains a reasonable force and fullness,- arrived at its fullest point 
the same progression must be adopted in diminishing it. 

When you blow into the instrument care must be taken to preserve always the full column of 
air at its disposal. 



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110 



THE APPOGGIATURA. 



The Appogiatura is a grace note which takes its value or duration from the note which fol- 
lows,- it is simple or double. In the first case it is above the real note,- In the second it is be- 
low at the distance of a semitone. 

Its duration is the half or two thirds of the note upon which it resolves itself, according to 
whether that note is pointed or not pointed. 

The word • Appogiatura signifies to lean, because this note being foreign to the chord in ef- 
fect leans upon that which follows. 

BULE : You must always make the Appogiatura note well marked, and diminish the sound 
so that it makes its resolution with softness. 



Mouvement di Valse. 



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5015 



112 

THE GRUPPETTO (or turn.) 

We give the name Gruppetto to a collection of four small notes joined together, and the value 
of which is taken not from the note which follows them, but from the one preceding. 

The Gruppetto is very frequently denoted by the sign ** beneath which is placed a | or a \> 
according to the alteration to be made in the third note: The # denotes that the third note is 
sharpened- The \> denotes that the highest note is to be flattened. I always advise the Grup- 
petto to be made with the lower semitone- The effect is softer and more agreeable to the ear. 

Many of our modern Authors have adopted the practice of fully writing out the thrill and the 
gruppetto, instead of marking them by abbreviations. The following lessons are written on 

that system. -; 

It is bad to hurry the Gruppetti or other graces of musical style. 



As written: 



To be played thus: 



GRUPPETTI WITH THREE NOTES: 
Gh-uppetti ascending. 




As written; 



To be played thus 



Gruppetti descending . 



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The following lessons are arranged for the practise of the Gruppetto with 3 or with 4 notes. 



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114 



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115 



THE TRILL OR SHAKE. 



The trill or shake is the rapid emission of two notes of conjoint degrees. Its duration is always equal 
to that of the note which bears it; it is denoted by the sign of abbreviation tr. 

The trill being frequently employed in music, it is essential to have it brilliant, supple, brisk and 
light, qualities without which it would only disfigure the melody. 

To trill properly you must allow your fingers to fall without stiffness; practise at first slowly;then 
by degrees increase the rapidity, swelling and diminishing the sound, until the fingers have acquired 
all the desired flexibility and lightness. 

The trill always commences with the note which bears it; occasionally by caprice or for particular 
reasons, authors use it differently and make it begin with the note above or the note below; in those 
cases they indicate it by small notes. 

When several trills succeed each other in descending, we suppress the small notes at the end except 
those of the last trill, because then the commencement of the second trill acts as a finish to the first. 

There are several ways of preparing and finishing the cadence; the following are some most in use: 
their proper employment is purely a matter of taste. 



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117 



THE MORDANT. 



The Mordant, indicated by the sign «*isa very short trill. 

The Mordant must be made by pressing upon the note which carries it, in such a manner as to ac 
centuate that note more strongly than that which precedes or follows it. 

EXAMPLES OF VARIOUS STYLES OF MORDANT. 



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119 



ORNAMENTS OR FLOURISHES IN MELODY. 



Italian music(less profound and serious than German and not so dramatic as French music) obtains the 
greatest number of admirers. Without wishing here to support or oppose the reasons for this preference, 
it is pretty certain that they are indepted for it to the very free and facile nature of their song,and above 
all to the flourishes or ornaments which they add to it with so much grace and taste. 

A knowledge of harmony would be of great assistance in enabling one to distinguish and separate em- 
bellishment from simple and primitive melody: these ornaments ought not to adopt a particular shading 
other than that of the note on which they are placed, for fear of altering the sense, and injuring the char- 
acter of the melody. 



EXAMPLE OF ORNAMENTS ADDED TO A MELODY. 



Cantabile. 




5015 



120 



ARPEGGIOS 



Like all wind instruments the Clarinet can only play the notes of a chord by distributing them (Ar- 
peggio) You must pass rapidly over the different notes of the arpeggio in order to make it entirely 
with a single breath. If the fingering is heavy and unequal, if the sound is cut at each note, it is no long, 
er Arpeggio — it is only passing quickly over several notes. 



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Music being entirely composed of scales and chords, to possess a perfect command of all the fingerings 
over the whole extent of the instrument is to be able to play without difficulty every musical combination 
however complicated it may be 

To enable the pupil to arrive progressively at excellent results I have written the follow in scales and 
chords without varying the Key so as to engrave them more easily on the memory. 

These studies should be learned by heart as forming the basis of all good musical principle. 

Many pupils have great trouble to understand and play a minor scale, the following examples will I 
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The minor scale is only distinguished in ascending by the 3 r - d which is minor in depending you make 
the scale of the relative Key: for example , in A minor you play the scale of C in descending. 

DAILY PRACTICE OF DIATONIC SCALES MAJOR AND MINOR AND EXERCISES ON PERFECT 
CHORDS, DOMINANT SEVENTHS, DIMINISHED SEVENTHS, etc. 



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CHROMATIC EXERCISE. 

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EXERCISES ON SIXTHS. 

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2 

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^Jetjj i L U -vji' i 




22 EXERCISES ON LOW NOTES (chalumeau.) 

Accent well the first note of each group. 



203 



Edited and revised by 
C. L.STAATS. 




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Copyright i907 by Carl Fischer, N. Y. 



204 



Clarinet accompaniment in La Gazza Ladra with different transpositions to suit the singers. 

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Clar. 




If you suppress the A Clarinet you must play it in D with the Bft Clarinet 




205 
This lesson can be played in F major: you merely use a one flat signature and read the same notes. 




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215 
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List of the Principal Words used in Modern Music 

With their Abbreviations and Explanations 



A to, in or at; a tempo, in time 

A£celerando (accel.). Gradually increasing the speed 

Accent Emphasis on certain parts of the measure 

Adagio . Slowly leisurely 

Ad libitum Cad lib.) . At .pleasure; not in strict time 

A due (a 2) To be played by both instruments 

Agitato Restless, with agitation 

Al or Alia In the style of 

Alia Marcia .... In the style of a March 

Allegretto Diminutive of allegro; moderately fast, lively; 

faster than andante; slower than allegro 

Allegro ...... . Lively; brisk, rapid. 

Allegro assai .... Very rapidly 

Amoroso Affectionately 

Andante In moderately slow time 

Andantino Diminutive of andante; strictly slower than an- 
dante, but often used in the reverse sense 

Anima, con \ . . . . "With animation 

Animato ) 

A piacere At pleasure: equivalent to ad libitum. 

Appassionato. . . .Impassioned 

Arpeggio A Broken chord 

Assai Very; Allegro assai, very rapidly 

A tempo In the original tempo 

Attacca Attack or begin what To llows without pausing 

Barcarolle A Venetian boatman's song 

Bis Twice, repeat the passage 

Bravura Brilliant; bold; spirited 

Brillante Showy, sparkling, brilliant 

Brio, con With much spirit 

Cadenz • , An elaborate, florid passage introduced 

as an embellishment 

Cantabile. ... .In a singing style" 

Canzonetta A short song or air 

Capriccio a . . . '.At pleasure, ad libitum 

Cavatina An air, shorter and simpler than the aria, 

and in one division, without Da Capo 

Chord The harmony of three or more tones of 

different pitch produced simultaneously 

Coda A supplemental the end of a composition 

Col or con With 

Crescendo (cresc.) . .Swelling; increasing in loudness 

Da or dal From 

Da Capo (D. C.) . .From the beginning 

Dal Segno (D. S.). . From the sign 

Decrescendo(decresc.)J)ecTe&sing in strength 

Diminuendo (dim.). Gradually softer 

Divisi Divided, each part to be played by a sep- 
arate instrument 

Dolce (dol.) . . . .Softly; sweetly 

Dolcissi?no Very sweetly and softly 

Dominant. . .- . . . The fifth tone in the major or minor scale 

Duet or Duo .... A composition for two performers 

E • .And 

Elegante Elegant, graceful 

Energico With energy, vigorously 

Enharmonic . . . .Alike in pitch r but different in notation 

Espressivo With expression 

Finale The concluding movement 

Fine The end 

ForteCf) Loud 

Forte - piano (fa) . .Accent strongly, diminishing instantly to 
piano 

Fortissimo (ff). . .Very loud 

Forzando(fz>~) . .Indicates that a note or chord is to be 
strongly accented 

Forza Force or tone 

Fuoco,con With fire; with spirit 

ixiocdso Joyously, playfully 

Oiusto Exact; in strict time 

Grandioso. .... .Grand; pompous; majestic 

Grave Very slow and solemn 

Grazioso Gracefully 

Harmony In general, a combination of tones, or 

chords, producing music 

Keynote The first degree of the scale, the tonic 

Largamente . . . .Very broad in style 

Larghetto Slow, but not so slow as Largo; nearly 

like Andantino 

Largo Broad and slow; the slowest tempo-mark 

Legato .Smoothly, the reverse of staccato 

Ledger-line A small added line above or below the 

staff 

Lento Slow, between Andante and Largo 

Eistesso tempo. . . In the same time, (or tempo) 

Loco In place. Play as written, no longer, an 

octave higher or lower 

Ma But 

Ma non troppo. . . Lively, but not too much so 

Maestoso Majestically; dignified 

Maggiore Major Key 

Marcato Marked 

Mono Less 

Meno mosso . . . .Less quickly 

Mezzo Half; moderately 



Mezzo-piano (mp) . Moderately soft 

Minore Minor Key 

Moderato Moderately. Allegro moderato, mod- 
erately fast 

Molta Much; very 

Morendo Dying away 

Mosso Equivalent to rapid. Piu mosso, quicker. 

Moto Motion. Con moto, with animation 

Now Not 

Notation The art of representing musical sounds 

by ipeans of written characters 

Obbligato. An indispensable part 

Opus (Op.). . . . .A work. 

Ossia . .Or; or else. Generally indicating an 

easier method 
Ottava («S^«) . • • .To be played an octave higher 
Vause {/7\) . . . .The sign indicating a pause or rest 

Perdendosi Dying away gradually 

Piacere, a At pleasure 

Pianissimo_(pp) . .Very softly 

Piano (p) Softly 

Piu More 

Piu Allegro . . . .More quickly 

Piu tosto Quicker 

Poco or un poco. .A .little 

Poco a poco. . . .Gradually, by degrees; little by little 

Poco piu mosso . . A little faster 

Poco ?neno .' . . . .A little slower 

Poco piu A little faster 

Poi ...... v . .Then; afterwards 

Pomposo Pompous; grand 

Prestissimo . . . .As quickly as possible 

Presto ....... Very quick; faster than Allegro 

Primo <I™o). . . . The first 

Quartet A piece of music for four performers. 

Quasi As if; in the style of 

Quintet. ... . .A piece of music for five per- 
formers 
~Rallentando(rall.) Gradually slower 
Replica Repetition. Senza replica, without 

repeats 
Rinforzando . . . .With special emphasis 
Ritardando (rit.) Gradually slower and slower 

Risoluto Resolutely; bold; energetic 

Ritenuto In slower time 

Scherzando Playfully; sportively 

Kecondo (2 d .°) . . .The second singer, instrumentalist or 

part 

Segue Follow on in similar style 

Semplice Simply; unaffectedly 

Senza Without. Senza sordino without mute 

Sforzando (sf). . .Forcibly; with sudden emphasis 

Simile or Simili . . In like manner 

Smarzando (smorz) Diminishing in sound. Equivalent to 

Morendo 

Soto For one performer only,,iS'0/£ for all 

Sordino A mute. Con sordino, with the mute 

Sostenuto. Sustained; prolonged. 

Sotto J3elow; under. Sotto voce, in a subdued 

tone 

Spirito Spirit, con Spirito with spirit 

Staccato Detached; separate 

Steniando ... .Dragging or retarding the tempo 
Stretto or stretta. .An increase of speed. Piu stretto faster 
Subdominant .... The fourth tone in the diatonic scale 
Syncopation . . . .Change of accent from a strong beat 

to a weak one. 
Tacet "Is silent" Signified that an instrument 

or vocal part, so marked, is omitted 

during the movement or number jn question. 

Tempo Movement; rate of speed. 

Tempo primo . . .Return to the original tempo. 
TenutoXten.) . . . .Held for the full value. 
Thema or Theme . .The subject or melody. 

Tonic The key-note of any scale. 

Tranquillo Quietly. 

Tremolando, Tremolo A tremulous fluctation 01 tone. 

Trio A piece of music for three performers. 

Triplet A group of three notes to be performed 

in the time of two of equal \alue in the 

regular rhythm. 
Troppo Too; too much Allegro t ma non t -to, 

not too quickly. 

Tutti All; all the instruments. 

Un A, one, an. 

Una corda On one string. 

Variatione The transformation of a melody by means 

of harmonic, rhythmic and melodic changes 

and embellishments. 

Veloce Quick, rapid, swift. 

Vibrato A wavering tone-effect, which should be 

sparingly used. 

Vivace With vivacity; bright; spirited. 

Vivo Lively; spirited. 

Volti Subito VS. . Turn over quickly. 



Boston Public Library 
Central Library, Copley Square 

Division of 
Reference and Research Services 

Music Department 



The Date Due Card in the pocket indi- 
cates the date on or before which this 
book should be returned to the Library. 

Please do not remove cards from this 
pocket. 



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